As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 15, 2018
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017
Commission File No.: 333-209744
TODOS MEDICAL LTD.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Translation of registrant’s name into English: Not applicable
State of Israel
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
1 Hamada Street
Rehovot, 7670301 Israel
(Address of principal executive offices)
Chief Executive Officer
1 Hamada Street
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of each class:||Name of each exchange on which registered or to be registered:|
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: Ordinary Shares, par value NIS 0.01 per share.
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
70,087,141 Ordinary Shares, par value NIS 0.01 per share as of December 31, 2017.
by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes ☐ No ☒
this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant
to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Yes ☐ No ☒
by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange
Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports),
and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes ☒ No ☐
by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive
Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the
preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large accelerated filer ☐||Accelerated filer ☐|
|Non-accelerated filer ☒||Emerging Growth Company ☒|
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing.
U.S. GAAP ☒
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ☐
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.
☐ Item 17 ☐ Item 18
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company.
Yes ☐ No ☒
|ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS||1|
|ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE||1|
|ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION||1|
|ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY||22|
|ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS||36|
|ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES||43|
|ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS||59|
|ITEM 8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION||63|
|ITEM 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING||64|
|ITEM 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION||64|
|ITEM 11. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK||75|
|ITEM 12. DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES||76|
|ITEM 13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES||77|
|ITEM 14. MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS||77|
|ITEM 15. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES||77|
|ITEM 16A. AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT||77|
|ITEM 16B. CODE OF ETHICS||77|
|ITEM 16C. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES||78|
|ITEM 16D. EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES||78|
|ITEM 16E. PURCHASE OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS||78|
|ITEM 16F. CHANGE IN REGISTRANT'S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT||78|
|ITEM 16G. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE||78|
|ITEM 16H. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE||78|
|ITEM 17. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS||79|
|ITEM 18. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS||79|
|ITEM 19. EXHIBITS.||79|
As of the date of this annual report on form 20-F, we have yet to finalize a business plan or a budget for the upcoming fiscal year, and therefore, under the guidance of our board of directors, we have paused all research and development activities and other operational activities, aside from the completion of a trial the following trials: Kaplan and Belinson (Israel) TM-B1 and Kaplan and Belinson (Israel) TM-C1. We are in the process of inquiring into different fundraising routes through which we may successfully raise additional funding in order to commercialize our cancer detection kits and to develop and commercialize any future products. As of the date of this annual report on Form 20-F, no such fundraising route has presented itself.
We are a clinical-stage cancer in-vitro diagnostic, or IVD, company engaged in the development of a series of patient-friendly blood tests for the detection of a variety of cancers based on our Todos Biochemical Infrared Analysis method, or TBIA, a proprietary technology for detection of solid tumors using peripheral blood analysis. The method incorporates biochemistry, physics and signal processing. The TBIA detection method is based on the cancer’s influence on the immune system which triggers biochemical changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, or PBMC, and plasma. Our core technology, TBIA, is based on research conducted and technology invented by the research teams at Ben Gurion University, or BGU, and Soroka Medical Center of Israel, or Soroka, whose intellectual property has been licensed to us in consideration of our contractual obligation to pay certain licensing fees.
We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Israel in April 2010. Since March 7, 2017, our ordinary shares par value NIS 0.01 per share, or Ordinary Shares, have been quoted on the U.S. OTCQB marketplace of OTC Link, or OTCQB, under the symbol “TOMDF.”
Unless otherwise indicated, all references to the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “Todos Medical” refer to Todos Medical Ltd. and its subsidiary, Todos Medical Singapore Pte. Ltd., a Singaporean corporation.
The currency of the primary economic environment in which the operations of the Company are conducted is the currency of the United States of America, and referenced herein as “U.S. dollars” and “$.” Thus, the functional currency of the Company is the U.S. dollar (which is also the reporting currency of the Company). References to “NIS” are to New Israeli Shekels. References to “Ordinary Shares” are to our Ordinary Shares, par value of NIS 0.01 per share. We report financial information under the accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or US GAAP. Unless otherwise indicated, U.S. dollar convenience translations of NIS amounts presented in this annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended on December 31, 2017 are translated using the rate of NIS 3.467 to $1.00, the exchange rate reported by the Bank of Israel on December 31, 2017, U.S. dollar convenience translations of NIS amounts presented in this annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended on December 31, 2016 are translated using the rate of NIS 3.845 to $1.00, the exchange rate reported by the Bank of Israel on December 31, 2016, and U.S. dollar convenience translations of NIS amounts presented in this annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended on December 31, 2015 are translated using the rate of NIS 3.902 to $1.00, the exchange rate reported by the Bank of Israel on December 31, 2015.
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain information included or incorporated by reference in this annual report on Form 20-F may be deemed to be “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and other U.S. Federal securities laws. Forward-looking statements are often characterized by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “continue,” “believe,” “should,” “intend,” “project” or other similar words, but are not the only way these statements are identified.
These forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements relating to our objectives, plans and strategies, statements that contain projections of results of operations or of financial condition, expected capital needs and expenses, statements relating to the research, development, completion and use of our products, and all statements (other than statements of historical facts) that address activities, events or developments that we intend, expect, project, believe or anticipate will or may occur in the future.
Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks and uncertainties. We have based these forward looking statements on assumptions and assessments made by our management in light of their experience and their perception of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors they believe to be appropriate.
Important factors that could cause actual results, developments and business decisions to differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements include, among other things:
|●||our success in raising additional funding;|
|●||the overall global economic environment;|
|●||the impact of competition and new technologies;|
|●||general market, political and economic conditions in the countries in which we operate;|
|●||projected capital expenditures and liquidity;|
|●||changes in our strategy;|
|●||those factors referred to in “Item 3. Key Information - D. Risk Factors,” “Item 4. Information on the Company,” and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects,” as well as in this annual report on Form 20-F generally.|
Readers are urged to carefully review and consider the various disclosures made throughout this annual report on Form 20-F which are designed to advise interested parties of the risks and factors that may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
You should not put undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statements in this annual report on Form 20-F are made as of the date hereof, and we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.
In addition, the section of this annual report on Form 20-F entitled “Item 4. Information on the Company” contains information obtained from independent industry sources and other sources that we have not independently verified.
A. Selected Financial Data
We have derived the following selected statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 from our audited consolidated financial statements and notes included in this annual report on Form 20-F. Our selected consolidated statements of operations data for the year ended December 31, 2014 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2015 and 2014 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this annual report on Form 20-F.
The selected financial data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements, and are qualified entirely by reference to such consolidated financial statements.
|U.S. dollars in thousands, except per share data||Year Ended December 31,|
|Consolidated Statements of Operations Data||2017||2016||2015||2014|
|Research and development expenses, net||$||(721||)||(318||)||(374||)||(336||)|
|General and administrative expenses||(617||)||(411||)||(457||)||(64||)|
|Financing income (expenses), net||(1,337||)||75||12||(79||)|
|Net loss per share (basic and diluted)||$||(0.04||)||(0.01||)||(0.02||)||(0.01||)|
|Basic and diluted weighted average number of Ordinary Shares outstanding||68,587,261||62,467,556||45,190,017||28,450,908|
Balance Sheet Data
|U.S. dollars in thousands, except per share data||Year Ended December 31,|
|Cash and cash equivalents||$||683||$||439||$||156||$||61|
|Total current liabilities||$||245||$||135||$||79||$||100|
|Total long-term liabilities||$||1,911||$||853||$||742||$||617|
|Number of Ordinary Shares outstanding||70,087,141||63,577,734||58,955,900||33,352,200|
|Number of Preferred Shares Outstanding||-||3,333,471||3,096,195||3,000,000|
EXCHANGE RATE INFORMATION
The following table sets forth information regarding the exchange rates of U.S. dollars per NIS for the periods indicated. Average rates are calculated by using the daily representative rates as reported by the Bank of Israel on the last day of each month during the periods presented. As of December 31, 2017, the exchange rate of U.S. dollars to NIS was 3.467.
|NIS per U.S. dollars|
|Year Ended December 31,||High||Low||Average||Period End|
The following table sets forth the high and low daily representative rates for the NIS as reported by the Bank of Israel for each of the prior six months.
|NIS per U.S. dollars|
|May 2018 (as of May 10, 2018)||3.63||3.58||3.61||3.58|
B. Capitalization and Indebtedness
C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
D. Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all of the other information in this annual report on Form 20-F. The risks described below are not the only risks facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business operations. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business and financial condition could suffer and the price of our Ordinary Shares could decline.
Risks Related to Our Business
We have a history of losses, may incur future losses and may not achieve profitability.
We are a clinical-stage medical diagnostics company with a limited operating history. We have incurred net losses in each fiscal year since we commenced operations in 2010. We incurred net losses of $818,541, $653,461 and $2,675,375 in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively. As of December 31, 2017 our accumulated deficit was $5,235,812. Our losses could continue for the foreseeable future, as we continue our investment in research and development and clinical trials to complete the development of our technology and to attain regulatory approvals, begin the commercialization efforts for our cancer detection kits, increase our marketing and selling expenses, and incur additional costs as a result of being a publicly reporting company in the United States. The extent of our future operating losses and the timing of becoming profitable are highly uncertain, and we may never achieve or sustain profitability.
We have a need for substantial additional financing and will have to significantly delay, curtail or cease operations if we are unable to secure such financing.
The Company requires substantial additional financing to fund its operations. As of May 10, 2018, our unaudited cash holdings were $305,000. Under the guidance of our board of directors, we have paused all research and development activities, aside from the completion of the following trials: Kaplan and Belinson (Israel) TM-B1 and Kaplan and Belinson (Israel) TM-C1. Due to the pause of certain activities, we believe that we will be able to use currently available capital resources for up to between 3 to 4 months. We will need to raise additional funds prior to commercializing our products. Additional financing may not be available to us on a timely basis on terms acceptable to us, or at all. In addition, any additional financing may be dilutive to our shareholders or may require us to grant a lender a security interest in our assets.
The report of our independent registered public accounting firm expresses substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
Our independent registered public accounting firm indicated in its report on our financial statements included in this annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2017, that conditions exist that raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a “going concern.” A going concern emphasis of matter paragraph included in our independent registered public accounting firm’s report on our consolidated financial statements, could impair investor perceptions and our ability to finance our operations through the sale of equity, incurring debt, or other financing alternatives. Our ability to continue as a going concern will depend upon many factors beyond our control including the availability and terms of future funding. If we are unable to achieve our goals and raise the necessary funds to finance our operations, our business would be jeopardized and we may not be able to continue. If we ceased operations, it is likely that all of our investors would lose their investment.
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, which can possibly result in a material misstatement of our annual financial statements not to be prevented or detected on a timely basis. We may also fail to comply with the rules that apply to public companies, including Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. This may result in a further deficiency in our internal control over financial reporting, as well as sanctions or other penalties that would harm our business.
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017. As defined in Regulation 12b-2 under the Securities Exchange Act, of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, a “material weakness” is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented, or detected on a timely basis. Specifically, we determined that that in 2017 we didn’t have sufficient segregation of duties in the procurement process, and ineffective control environment.
We continue to evaluate the impact of internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. As of December 31,2017, the ineffectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting was due to the following material weaknesses: lack of segregation of duties in the procurement process, and ineffective control environment.
We have taken action toward remediating this material weakness by segregate duties in the procurement process and by strengthen our control environment. However, the implementation of these initiatives may not fully address any material weakness or other deficiencies that we may have in our internal control over financial reporting.
Furthermore, we are only in the early stages of determining formally whether our existing internal control over financial reporting systems are compliant with Section 404 and whether there are any other material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our existing internal control. These controls and other procedures are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by using the reports that we file with the SEC is disclosed accurately and is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in SEC rules and forms.
Even if we develop effective internal control over financial reporting, these controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions or the degree of compliance with these policies or procedures may deteriorate, and material weaknesses and deficiencies may be discovered in them. We are working with our legal, independent accounting and financial advisors to identify those areas in which changes should be made to our financial and management control systems to manager our growth and our obligations as a public company, these areas include corporate governance, corporate control, disclosures controls and procedures and financial reporting. We have made and will continue to make, changes in these and other areas. In any event, the process of determining whether our existing internal controls are compliant with Section 404 and sufficiently effective will require the investment of substantial time and resources, including by our chief financial officer and other members of our senior management. As a result, this process may divert internal resources and take a significant amount of time and effort to complete, even more so after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” In addition, we cannot predict the outcome of this process and whether we will need to implement remedial actions in order to implement effective controls over financial reporting. The determination of whether or not our internal controls are sufficient and any remedial actions required could result in us incurring additional costs that we did not anticipate, including the hiring of outside consultants. We may also fail to complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation needed to comply with Section 404 in a timely fashion.
Irrespective of compliance with Section 404, any additional failure of our internal controls could have a material adverse effect on our stated results of operations and harm our reputation. As a result, we may experience higher than anticipated operating expenses, as well as higher independent auditor fees during and after the implementation of these changes, if we are unable to implement any of the required changes to our internal control over financial reporting effectively or efficiently or are required to do so earlier than anticipated, it could adversely affect our operations, financial reporting or results or operations and could result in an adverse opinion on internal controls from our independent auditors.
Furthermore, if we are unable to certify that our internal control over financial reporting is effective and in compliance with Section 404, we may be subject to sanctions or investigations by regulatory authorities, such as the SEC or stock exchanges, and we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which could hurt our business the price of our ordinary shares and our ability to access the capital markets.
We may not succeed in completing the development of our product, commercializing our product and generating significant revenues.
Since commencing our operations, we have focused on the research and development and limited clinical trials of our cancer detection kits. Our ability to generate revenues and achieve profitability depends on our ability to successfully complete the development of our product, obtain market approval and generate significant revenues. The future success of our business cannot be determined at this time, and we do not anticipate generating revenues from product sales for the foreseeable future. In addition, we face a number of challenges with respect to our future commercialization efforts, including, among others, that:
|●||we may not have adequate financial or other resources to complete the development of our product, including two stages of clinical development that are necessary in order to commercialize our products;|
|●||We may not be able to manufacture our products in commercial quantities, at an adequate quality or at an acceptable cost;|
|●||we may not be able to meet the timing schedule for (a) completing successful clinical trials in the U.S.; and (b) receiving U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, approval within our goal of approximately two to four years;|
|●||we may not be able to maintain our CE mark due to the regulatory changes;|
|●||we may never receive FDA approval, for our intended development plan;|
|●||we may not be able to establish adequate sales, marketing and distribution channels;|
|●||healthcare professionals and patients may not accept our cancer detection kits;|
|●||technological breakthroughs in cancer detection, treatment and prevention may reduce the demand for our products;|
|●||changes in the market for cancer detection, new alliances between existing market participants and the entrance of new market participants may interfere with our market penetration efforts;|
|●||third-party payors may not agree to reimburse patients for any or all of the purchase price of our products, which may adversely affect patients’ willingness to purchase our cancer detection kits;|
|●||uncertainty as to market demand may result in inefficient pricing of our cancer detection kits;|
|●||we may face third-party claims of intellectual property infringement;|
|●||we may fail to obtain or maintain regulatory approvals for our cancer detection kits in our target markets or may face adverse regulatory or legal actions relating to our cancer detection kits even if regulatory approval is obtained; and|
|●||we are dependent upon the results of ongoing clinical studies relating to our cancer detection kits and the products of our competitors. We may fail in obtaining positive results.|
If we are unable to meet any one or more of these challenges successfully, our ability to effectively commercialize our cancer detection kits could be limited, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are currently in the process of improving our technology and adapting to the high throughput methodology.
We plan to change our protocol and measurement instrument as well as our sample handling in order to adapt it to new high throughput methodology. The changes we plan to implement in the protocol and measurement instrument are significant. The new protocol aims to be more robust, reproducible, fast and easy to handle, however, this transformation from the older manual protocol to the new protocol incurs several risks. To our management’s knowledge, the new protocol will not impact the previously obtained European Conformity, or CE, mark of approval of the TBIA test. The results may not be as promising as the former version and although some procedures may be more reproducible, these procedures will unfortunately damage some molecules, which were part of the diagnostic features in the previous protocol.
The previous tests we performed were preliminary or limited un-blinded studies.
We consider the tests conducted by us, as of the current date, under our method, to be preliminary or limited, as they include a relatively small number of test subjects. Thus, there is a risk in having less sufficient sensitivity and/or specificity in the trials we plan on conducting with larger populations, in comparison to the preliminary data we have gathered thus far. Increasing the population can increase the variance in the medical condition of the control patients as well as the cancer patients, thus affecting our test performances with regard to cancer detection.
If healthcare professionals do not recommend our product to their patients, our cancer detection kits may not achieve market acceptance and we may not become profitable.
Cancer detection candidates are generally referred to a specified device by their healthcare professional and detection technologies are purchased by prescription. If healthcare professionals, including physicians, do not recommend or prescribe our product to their patients, our cancer detection kits may not achieve market acceptance and we may not become profitable. In addition, physicians have historically been slow to change their medical diagnostic and treatment practices because of perceived liability risks arising from the use of new products. Delayed adoption of our testing kits by healthcare professionals could lead to a delayed adoption by patients and third-party payors. Healthcare professionals may not recommend or prescribe our testing kits until certain conditions have been satisfied, including, among others:
|●||sufficient long-term clinical evidence to convince them to supplement their existing detection methods and device recommendations;|
|●||recommendations from other prominent physicians, educators and/or associations that our testing kits are safe and effective;|
|●||obtainment of favorable data from clinical studies for our testing kits; and|
|●||availability of reimbursement or insurance coverage from third-party payors.|
We cannot predict when, if ever, healthcare professionals and patients may adopt the use of our testing kits. Even if favorable data is obtained from clinical studies for our testing kits, there can be no assurance that prominent physicians would endorse it or that future clinical studies will continue to produce favorable data regarding our testing kits. In addition, prolonged market exposure may also be a pre-requisite to reimbursement or insurance coverage from third-party payors. If our testing kits do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance by patients, healthcare professionals and third-party payors, we may not generate significant product revenues and we may not become profitable.
Our reliance on limited source suppliers could harm our ability to meet demand for our product in a timely manner or within budget.
We currently depend on a limited number of source suppliers for some of the components necessary for the production of our product. Our current suppliers have been able to supply the required quantities of such components to date. However, if the supply of these components is disrupted or terminated or if our current suppliers are unable to supply required quantities of components, we may not be able to find alternative sources for these key components in a timely manner. Although we are planning to maintain strategic inventory of key components, the inventory may not be sufficient to satisfy the demand for our products if such supply is interrupted or otherwise affected by catastrophic events such as a fire at our storage facility. As a result, we may be unable to meet the demand for our testing kits, which could harm our ability to generate revenues, lead to customer dissatisfaction and damage our reputation. If we are required to change the manufacturer of any of these key components, there may be a significant delay in locating a suitable alternative manufacturer. The delays associated with the identification of a new manufacturer could delay our ability to manufacture our testing kits in a timely manner or within budget. Furthermore, in the event that the manufacturer of a key component of our testing kits ceases operations or otherwise ceases to do business with us, we may not have access to the information necessary to enable another supplier to manufacture the component. The occurrence of any of these events could harm our ability to meet demand for our testing kits in a timely manner or within budget.
The use of any of our cancer detection kits could result in product liability or similar claims that could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our reputation.
Our business exposes us to an inherent risk of potential product liability or similar claims related to the manufacturing, marketing and sale of medical devices. The medical device industry has historically been litigious, and we face financial exposure to product liability or similar claims if the use of our kits were to cause or contribute to injury or death, including, without limitation, harm to the body caused by the procedure or inaccurate diagnoses from the procedure that could affect treatment options. There is also the possibility that defects in the design or manufacture of any of these products might necessitate a product recall. Although we plan to maintain product liability insurance, the coverage limits of these policies may not be adequate to cover future claims. In the future, we may be unable to maintain product liability insurance on acceptable terms or at reasonable costs and such insurance may not provide us with adequate coverage against potential liabilities. A product liability claim, regardless of merit or ultimate outcome, or any product recall could result in substantial costs to us, damage to our reputation, customer dissatisfaction and frustration, and a substantial diversion of management attention. A successful claim brought against us in excess of, or outside of, our insurance coverage could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our reputation.
We will require additional funding in order to commercialize our cancer detection kits and to develop and commercialize any future products.
Assuming we are successful in raising additional capital, we will continue clinical trials in Israel, after stopping them due to insufficient funds, and in Singapore and continue our efforts towards commencing the clinical trials in the U.S.
In order to market and sell our products in Israel, we require the approval of the Ministry of Health. To the best of our knowledge, approval of our products by the Ministry of Health requires us to comply with CE mark approval and International Organization for Standardization, or ISO, 13485 (which we have already obtained). According to the ISO website, ISO 13485 “specifies requirements for a quality management system where an organization needs to demonstrate its ability to provide medical devices and related services that consistently meet customer and applicable regulatory requirements.” The Ministry of Health, however, may have other requirements prior to approving our tests for commercialization in Israel. We have started the regulatory approval process in Israel, however, if we will raise additional funding, we will attempt to ascertain whether or not there are other regulatory requirements for obtaining commercialization of our tests in Israel. Once we begin the process, we expect regulatory approval in Israel to take approximately one year.
Furthermore, if adequate additional financing on acceptable terms is not available, we may not be able to develop our cancer detection kits at the rate or to the stage we desire and we may have to delay or abandon the commercialization of our cancer detection kits. Alternatively, we may be required to prematurely license to third parties the rights to further develop or to commercialize our cancer detection kits on terms that are not favorable to us. Any of these factors could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are entering a potentially highly competitive market.
Early detection is vital to the treatment of cancer, which is also the focus area of our products. The diagnostic, pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries are characterized by intense competition and rapid, significant technological changes. Many companies, research institutions and universities are conducting research and development in a number of areas similar to those that we focus on that could lead to the development of new products which could possibly compete with our own. Most of the companies against which we will compete have substantially greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing, distribution and other resources. A number of these companies may have or may develop technologies for developing products for detecting various cancers that could prove to be the same or even superior to ours. We expect technological developments in the diagnostic, pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and related fields to occur at a rapid rate, and we believe competition will intensify as advances in these fields are made.
Our future success depends in part on our ability to retain our executive officers and to attract, retain and motivate other qualified personnel.
We are highly dependent on the principal members of our management, research and development team and scientific staff. In order to implement our business strategy, we will need to retain our key personnel with expertise in the areas of research and development, clinical testing, government regulation, manufacturing, finance, marketing and sales. The inability to recruit and retain qualified personnel, or the loss of the services of our executive officers, without proper replacement, may impede the progress of our development and commercialization objectives.
Any disruption at our facility could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We take precautions to safeguard our facility, including obtaining insurance coverage and implementing health and safety protocols and off-site storage of computer data. However, a natural or other disaster, such as a fire, flood or an armed conflict involving Israel, as detailed further below, could damage or destroy our facility and our manufacturing equipment or inventory, cause substantial delays in our operations and otherwise cause us to incur additional unanticipated expenses. In addition, the insurance we maintain against fires, floods and other natural disasters may not be adequate to cover our losses in any particular case and it does not cover losses resulting from armed conflicts or terrorist attacks in Israel. Damage to our facility, our other property or to any of our suppliers, whether located in Israel or elsewhere, due to fire, a natural disaster or casualty event or an armed conflict, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, with or without insurance.
There are future financial risks associated with funding our business operations with bank loans.
It is highly likely that we will find it necessary to borrow funds from banks or other financial institutions. No assurances can be given that, at the time we desires to borrow funds, banks or other financial institutions will be willing to loan funds to we or that, if willing, will do so on terms acceptable to by our management. As a result, we may not be able to acquire data desired by management which might have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results.
We may become involved in legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business.
From time to time, we may become involved in various lawsuits and legal proceedings, which arise, in the ordinary course of business. However, litigation is subject to inherent uncertainties, and an adverse result in these or other matters may arise from time to time that may harm our business. Our management is currently not aware of any such legal proceedings or claims that we believe will have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
We may not successfully maintain our existing license agreement with BGU and Soroka, and we are currently not in compliance with the repayment terms of the license agreement, which could adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates.
We rely on our existing License Agreement with BGU and Soroka with respect to the development of our core technology, TBIA. Our business also relies on establish new collaborative and licensing arrangements in the future. Our failure to maintain our existing license, or develop new collaborative and licensing arrangements in the future, could adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates and could adversely affect our business prospects, financial condition or ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates. We are not currently in compliance with the repayment terms of the license agreement with our licensor. As such, we are currently negotiating an amendment to the license agreement which would allow us to pay the abovementioned payments at a later date.
We may not be able to further establish or maintain such licensing and collaboration arrangements necessary to develop and commercialize our product candidates. Even if we are able to maintain or establish licensing or collaboration arrangements, these arrangements may not be on favorable terms and may contain provisions that will restrict our ability to develop, test and market our product candidates. Any failure to maintain or establish licensing or collaboration arrangements on favorable terms could adversely affect our business prospects, financial condition or ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates.
Our license agreement contains provisions that could give rise to disputes regarding the rights and obligations of the parties. These and other possible disagreements could lead to termination of the agreement or delays in collaborative research, development, supply, or commercialization of certain product candidates, or could require or result in litigation or arbitration. Moreover, disagreements could arise with our collaborators over rights to intellectual property or our rights to share in any of the future revenues of products developed by our collaborators. These kinds of disagreements could result in costly and time-consuming litigation. Any such conflicts with our collaborators could reduce our ability to obtain future collaboration agreements and could have a negative impact on our relationship with existing collaborators.
If we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights, our competitive position could be harmed.
Our success and ability to compete depends in large part upon our ability to protect our intellectual property. We face several risks and uncertainties in connection with our intellectual property rights, including, among others:
|●||pending and future patent applications may not result in the issuance of patents or, if issued, may not be issued in a form that will be advantageous to us;|
|●||our issued patents may be challenged, invalidated or legally circumvented by third parties;|
|●||our patents may not be upheld as valid and enforceable or prevent the development of competitive products;|
|●||the eligibility of certain inventions related to diagnostic medicine, more specifically diagnostic methods and processes, for patent protection in the United States has been limited recently which may affect our ability to enforce our issued patents in the United States or may make it difficult to obtain broad patent protection going forward in the United States;|
|●||for a variety of reasons, we may decide not to file for patent protection on various improvements or additional features; and|
|●||intellectual property protection and/or enforcement may be unavailable or limited in some countries where laws or law enforcement practices may not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, the European Union, or the EU, or Israel.|
Consequently, our competitors could develop, manufacture and sell products that directly compete with our products, which could decrease our sales and diminish our ability to compete. In addition, competitors could attempt to develop their own competitive technologies that fall outside of our intellectual property rights. If our intellectual property does not adequately protect us from our competitors’ products and methods, our competitive position could be materially adversely affected.
Because the medical device industry is litigious, we are susceptible to intellectual property suits that could cause us to incur substantial costs or pay substantial damages or prohibit us from selling our cancer detection kits.
There is a substantial amount of litigation over patent and other intellectual property rights in the medical device industry. Whether or not a product infringes a patent involves complex legal and factual considerations, the determination of which is often uncertain. Our management is presently unaware of any other parties’ valid patents and proprietary rights which our evolving product designs would infringe. Searches typically performed to identify potentially infringed patents of third parties are often not conclusive and, because patent applications can take many years to issue, there may be applications now pending, which may later result in issued patents which our current or future products may infringe. In addition, our competitors or other parties may assert that our cancer detection kits and the methods employed may be covered by patents held by them. If any of our products infringes a valid patent, we could be prevented from manufacturing or selling such product unless we are able to obtain a license or able to redesign the product in such a manner as to avoid infringement. A license may not always be available or may require us to pay substantial royalties. We also may not be successful in any attempt to redesign our product to avoid infringement. Infringement and other intellectual property claims, with or without merit, can be expensive and time-consuming to litigate and could divert our management’s attention from operating our business.
The steps we have taken to protect our intellectual property may not be adequate, which could have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete in the market.
In addition to filing patent applications, we rely on confidentiality, non-compete, non-disclosure and assignment of inventions provisions, as appropriate, with our employees, consultants and, to some extent, our partners, to protect and otherwise seek to control access to, and distribution of, our proprietary information. These measures may not be adequate to protect our intellectual property from unauthorized disclosure, third-party infringement or misappropriation, for the following reasons:
|●||the agreements may be breached, may not provide the scope of protection we believe they provide or may be determined to be unenforceable;|
|●||we may have inadequate remedies for any breach;|
|●||proprietary information could be disclosed to our competitors; or|
|●||others may independently develop substantially equivalent or superior proprietary information and techniques or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets or disclose such technologies.|
Specifically, with respect to non-compete agreements, we may be unable to enforce these agreements, in whole or in part, and it may be difficult for us to restrict our competitors from gaining the expertise that our former employees gained while working for us. If our intellectual property is disclosed or misappropriated, it could harm our ability to protect our rights and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may need to initiate lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents and other intellectual property rights, which could be expensive and, if we lose, could cause us to lose some of our intellectual property rights, which would harm our ability to compete in the market.
We rely on patents to protect a portion of our intellectual property and our competitive position. Patent law relating to the scope of claims in the technology fields in which we operate is still evolving and, consequently, patent positions in the medical device industry are generally uncertain. In order to protect or enforce our patent rights, we may initiate patent and related litigation against third parties, such as infringement suits or interference proceedings. Any lawsuits that we initiate could be expensive, take significant time and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns and the outcome of litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights in patents, copyrights, trade secrets or trademarks is highly unpredictable. Litigation also puts our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not issuing. In addition, we may provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate and the damages or other remedies awarded, including attorney fees, if any, may not be commercially valuable. The occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Regulations
If we or our future distributors do not obtain and maintain the necessary regulatory clearances or approvals in a specific country or region, we will not be able to market and sell our cancer detection kits or future products in that country or region.
We intend to market our cancer detection kits in a number of international markets. To be able to market and sell our cancer detection kits in a specific country or region, we or our distributors must comply with the regulations of that country or region. While the regulations of some countries do not impose barriers to marketing and selling part or all of our products or only require notification, others require that we or our distributors obtain the approval of a specified regulatory authorities. These regulations, including the requirements for approvals and the time required for regulatory review, vary from country to country. Obtaining regulatory approvals is expensive and time-consuming, and we cannot be certain that we or our distributors will receive regulatory approvals for our cancer detection kits or any future products in each country or region in which we plan to market such products. If we modify our cancer detection kits or any future products, we or our distributors may need to apply for new regulatory approvals or regulatory authorities may need to review the planned changes before we are permitted to sell them.
The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, or MHRA, is the United Kingdom based European Authority responsible for the issuance of CE Mark approval. In 2013, our regulatory authorized representative in Europe submitted an application to the MHRA for the CE Mark approval of our TBIA method. We obtained this approval on December 9, 2013 with the receipt of a Certificate of Conformance from our regulatory authorized representative in Europe. The European regulatory demands regarding IVD have recently been revised and major changes need to be made in order to keep our CE Mark. These changes need to be made until 2022. We may not meet the quality and safety standards required to maintain any authorizations we receive in the future or maintain the CE Certificate of Conformance that we have already received. If we or our distributors are unable to maintain our authorizations or CE Certificate of Conformance in a particular country or region, we will no longer be able to sell our cancer detection kits or any future products in that country or region, and our ability to generate revenues will be materially and adversely affected.
If we are unable to successfully complete clinical trials with respect to our cancer detection kits, we may be unable to receive regulatory approvals or clearances for our cancer detection kits and/or our ability to achieve market acceptance of our cancer detection kits will be harmed.
The development of cancer diagnostics typically includes pre-clinical studies. Certain other devices require the submission of data generated from clinical trials, which can be a long, expensive and uncertain processes, subject to delays and failure at any stage. The data obtained from the studies and trials may be inadequate to support regulatory clearances or approvals, or to obtain third country approval equivalent to CE approval, or to allow market acceptance of the products being studied. Our cancer detection kits are currently undergoing clinical development.
We conducted clinical studies in cooperation with leading hospitals in Israel. A study with the Soroka (along with BGU) formed the basis of our methodology. We then conducted studies, with both Rabin Medical Center, or Rabin, and Kaplan Medical Center, or Kaplan, which focused on breast and colorectal cancers.
Currently, we are engaged in completing several clinical trials concerning breast cancer and colorectal cancer that are required for product development. The data from these clinical trials may be used or required in order to obtain regulatory approvals for our products including for the purpose of seeking FDA approval.
As for the FDA, our product’s intended use or other specifications that are under development today, may not be accepted by the FDA. Thus, our trials may not be relevant as supportive material to the FDA.
We are an IVD company, developing proprietary technology which will analyze a blood test to detect the presence of various cancers. Since we are not developing a drug, we believe that we will not need to submit an investigational new drug application to the FDA prior to conducting clinical trials in the U.S. We believe that we will only need institutional review board, or IRB, approval prior to conducting clinical trials in the U.S.
We expect that obtaining FDA approval for the marketing and selling of our products in the U.S. will take anywhere between two to four years and will cost us approximately $10 million to $15 million. As we do not have this amount of money, we would need to raise additional funds to perform clinical trials in the U.S. in order to receive FDA approval. If we are unable to raise such funds, we will not be able proceed with our efforts to obtain FDA approval. Inability to obtain FDA approval would significantly harm our viability as a company.
We estimate that we will need a “small pilot” clinical trial to enable us to approach the FDA with the results and begin a dialogue with the FDA to seek the FDA’s recommendation (not their approval) as to trial size and the protocols for future U.S. clinical trials. We plan to submit a formal application to the FDA for approval of the TBIA method after we have completed our clinical trials in the U.S.
Our intentions are to evaluate opening a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments laboratory, or CLIA laboratory, and retain our product as a Laboratory Developed Test, or LDT, which are assays developed in the laboratory for internal use, in parallel to the FDA evaluation.
Further any regulatory authority whose approval we will require in order to market and sell our products in any territory may require us to submit data on a greater number of patients than we originally anticipated and/or for a longer follow-up period or they may change the data collection requirements or data analysis applicable to our clinical trials.
The commencement or completion of any of our clinical studies or trials may be delayed or halted, or be inadequate to support regulatory clearance, approval or product acceptance, or to obtain local regulatory approvals in any country that we wish to sell our products, for numerous reasons, including, among others:
|●||patients do not enroll in the clinical trial at the rate we expect;|
|●||patients do not comply with trial protocols;|
|●||patient follow-up is not at the rate we expect;|
|●||patients experience adverse side effects;|
|●||patients die during a clinical trial, even though their death may be unrelated to our product;|
|●||regulatory authorities do not approve a clinical trial protocol or a clinical trial, or place a clinical trial on hold;|
|●||IRBs, Ethics Committees and third-party clinical investigators may delay or reject our trial protocol and Informed Consent Form;|
|●||third-party clinical investigators decline to participate in a study or trial or do not perform a study or trial on our anticipated schedule or consistent with the investigator agreements, study or trial protocol, good clinical practices or FDA, IRBs, Ethics Committees, or other applicable requirements;|
|●||third-party organizations such as the Contract Research Organization, do not perform data collection, monitoring and analysis in a timely or accurate manner or consistent with the study or trial protocol or investigational or statistical plans;|
|●||regulatory inspections of our studies, trials or manufacturing facilities may require us to, among other things, undertake corrective action or suspend or terminate our studies or clinical trials;|
|●||changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions;|
|●||the interim or final results of the study or clinical trial are inconclusive or unfavorable as to safety or efficacy; and|
|●||a regulatory agency or our notified body concludes that our trial design is or was inadequate to demonstrate different parameters of the assay.|
The results of pre-clinical and clinical studies do not necessarily predict future clinical trial results, and predecessor clinical trial results may not be repeated in subsequent clinical trials. Additionally, any regulatory authority whose approval we will require in order to market and sell our products in any territory may disagree with our interpretation of the data from our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials, or may find the clinical trial design, conduct or results inadequate to demonstrate safety or efficacy, and may require us to pursue additional pre-clinical studies or clinical trials, which could further delay the clearance or approval of the sale of our products. The data we collect from our non-clinical testing, our pre-clinical studies and other clinical trials may not be sufficient to support regulatory approval.
If the third parties on which we rely to conduct our clinical trials and clinical development do not perform as contractually required or expected, we may not be able to obtain regulatory clearance or approval for, or commercialize, our cancer detection kits or future products.
We do not have the ability to independently conduct our clinical trials for our cancer detection kits and we must rely on third parties, such as contract research organizations, medical institutions, clinical investigators and contract laboratories to conduct such trials. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or regulatory obligations or meet expected deadlines, if these third parties need to be replaced, or if the quality or accuracy of the data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our clinical protocols or regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our pre-clinical development activities or clinical trials may be extended, delayed, suspended or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory clearance for, or successfully commercialize, our cancer detection kits or future products on a timely basis, if at all, and our business, operating results and prospects may be adversely affected. Furthermore, our third-party clinical trial investigators may be delayed in conducting our clinical trials for reasons outside of their control.
The results of our clinical trials may not support our product candidate claims or may result in the discovery of adverse side effects.
Even if our clinical trials are completed as planned, we cannot be certain that their results will support our product claims or that any regulatory authority whose approval we will require in order to market and sell our products in any territory will agree with our conclusions regarding them. Success in pre-clinical studies and early clinical trials does not ensure that later clinical trials will be successful, and we cannot be sure that clinical trials will replicate the results of prior trials and pre-clinical studies. The clinical trial process may fail to demonstrate that our cancer detection kits, or any future products, are safe and effective for the proposed indicated uses, which could cause us to abandon a product and may delay development of others. Any delay or termination of our clinical trials will delay the filing of our product submissions and, ultimately, our ability to commercialize our cancer detection kits, or any future products, and generate revenues. It is also possible that patients enrolled in clinical trials will experience adverse side effects that are not currently part of the product candidate’s profile.
Our cancer detection kits may in the future be subject to product recalls that could harm our reputation, business and financial results.
The FDA and similar foreign governmental authorities have the authority to require the recall of commercialized products in the event of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture. In the case of the FDA, the authority to require a recall must be based on an FDA finding that there is a reasonable probability that the device would cause serious injury or death. In addition, foreign governmental bodies have the authority to require the recall of our products in the event of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture. Manufacturers may, under their own initiative, recall a product if any material deficiency in a device is found. A government-mandated or voluntary recall by us or one of our distributors could occur as a result of component failures, manufacturing errors, design or labeling defects or other deficiencies and issues. Once marketed, recalls of any of our products, including our cancer detection kits, would divert managerial and financial resources and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The FDA requires that certain classifications of recalls be reported to the FDA within 10 working days after the recall is initiated. Companies are required to maintain certain records of recalls, even if they are not reportable to the FDA. We may initiate voluntary recalls involving our products in the future that we determine do not require us to notify the FDA. If the FDA disagrees with our determinations, they could require us to report those actions as recalls. A future recall announcement could harm our reputation with customers and negatively affect our sales. In addition, the FDA could take enforcement action against us based on our failure to report the recalls when they were conducted.
If we are unable to achieve reimbursement and coverage from third-party payors for laboratory tests using our cancer detection kits, or if reimbursement is insufficient to create an economic benefit for purchasing or using our cancer detection kits when compared to alternative tests, demand for our products may not grow at the rate we expect.
The demand for our cancer detection kits will depend significantly on the eligibility of the tests performed using our cancer detection kits for reimbursement through government-sponsored healthcare payment systems and private third-party payors. Reimbursement practices vary significantly from country to country and within some countries, by region, and we must obtain reimbursement approvals on a country-by-country and/or region-by-region basis. In general, the process of obtaining reimbursement and coverage approvals has been longer outside of the United States. We may not be able to obtain reimbursement approvals in a timely manner or at all and existing reimbursement and coverage policies may be revised from time to time by third-party payors. If physicians, hospitals and other healthcare providers are unable to obtain sufficient coverage and reimbursement from third-party payors for tests using our cancer detection kits, if reimbursement is, or is perceived by our customers to be, insufficient to create an economic incentive for purchasing or using our cancer detection kits, or if such reimbursement does not adequately compensate physicians and health care providers compared to the other tests they offer, demand for our products may not grow at the rate we expect.
Federal and state privacy laws, and equivalent laws of third countries, may increase our costs of operation and expose us to civil and criminal sanctions.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended, and the regulations that have been issued under it, or collectively HIPAA, and similar laws outside the United States, contain substantial restrictions and requirements with respect to the use and disclosure of individuals’ protected health information. The HIPAA privacy rules prohibit “covered entities,” such as healthcare providers and health plans, from using or disclosing an individual’s protected health information, unless the use or disclosure is authorized by the individual or is specifically required or permitted under the privacy rules. Under the HIPAA security rules, covered entities must establish administrative, physical and technical safeguards to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of electronic protected health information maintained or transmitted by them or by others on their behalf. While we do not believe that we will be a covered entity under HIPAA, we believe many of our customers will be covered entities subject to HIPAA. Such customers may require us to enter into business associate agreements, which will obligate us to safeguard certain health information we obtain in the course of our relationship with them, restrict the manner in which we use and disclose such information and impose liability on us for failure to meet our contractual obligations.
In addition, under The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, or HITECH, which was signed into law as part of the U.S. stimulus package in February 2009, certain of HIPAA’s privacy and security requirements are now also directly applicable to “business associates” of covered entities and subject them to direct governmental enforcement for failure to comply with these requirements. We may be deemed as a “business associate” of some of our customers. As a result, we may be subject as a “business associate” to civil and criminal penalties for failure to comply with applicable privacy and security rule requirements. Moreover, HITECH created a new requirement obligating “business associates” to report any breach of unsecured, individually identifiable health information to their covered entity customers and imposes penalties for failing to do so.
In addition to HIPAA, most U.S. states have enacted patient confidentiality laws that protect against the disclosure of confidential medical information, and many U.S. states have adopted or are considering adopting further legislation in this area, including privacy safeguards, security standards, and data security breach notification requirements. These U.S. state laws, which may be even more stringent than the HIPAA requirements, are not preempted by the federal requirements, and we are therefore required to comply with them to the extent they are applicable to our operations.
These and other possible changes to HIPAA or other U.S. federal or state laws or regulations, or comparable laws and regulations in countries where we conduct business, could affect our business and the costs of compliance could be significant. Failure by us to comply with any of the standards regarding patient privacy, identity theft prevention and detection, and data security may subject us to penalties, including civil monetary penalties and in some circumstances, criminal penalties. In addition, such failure may damage our reputation and adversely affect our ability to retain customers and attract new customers.
The protection of personal data, particularly patient data, is subject to strict laws and regulations in many countries. The collection and use of personal health data in the EU is governed by the provisions of Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, commonly known as the Data Protection Directive. The Directive imposes a number of requirements including an obligation to seek the consent of individuals to whom the personal data relates, the information that must be provided to the individuals, notification of data processing obligations to the competent national data protection authorities of individual EU Member States and the security and confidentiality of the personal data. The Data Protection Directive also imposes strict rules on the transfer of personal data out of the EU to the U.S. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Data Protection Directive and the related national data protection laws of the EU Member States may result in fines and other administrative penalties and harm our business. We may incur extensive costs in ensuring compliance with these laws and regulations, particularly if we are considered to be a data controller within the meaning of the Data Protection Directive.
Once we commercialize our product, if ever, security breaches, loss of data and other disruptions could compromise sensitive information related to our business or prevent us from accessing critical information and expose us to liability, which could adversely affect our business and our reputation.
Once we commercialize our product, in the ordinary course of our business, it is highly likely that we and our third-party providers will collect and store sensitive data, including legally-protected health information and personally identifiable information about patients, our healthcare provider customers and payors. We also may store sensitive intellectual property and other proprietary business information, including that of our customers and payors. We plan to manage and maintain our data utilizing a combination of on-site systems and cloud-based data center systems. This data will encompass a wide variety of business critical information, including research and development information, commercial information and business and financial information.
We face four primary risks relative to protecting this critical information: loss of access risk, inappropriate disclosure risk, inappropriate modification risk and the risk of our being unable to identify and audit our controls over the first three risks.
We will be highly dependent on information technology networks and systems, including the Internet, to securely process, transmit and store this critical information. Security breaches of this infrastructure, including physical or electronic break-ins, computer viruses, attacks by hackers and similar breaches, can create system disruptions, shutdowns or unauthorized disclosure or modification of confidential information. The secure processing, storage, maintenance and transmission of this critical information will be vital to our operations and business strategy, and we plan to devote significant resources to protecting such information. Although we will take measures to protect sensitive information from unauthorized access or disclosure, our information technology and infrastructure, and that of our third-party providers, may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or viruses or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions.
A security breach or privacy violation that leads to disclosure or modification of or prevents access to consumer information (including personally identifiable information or protected health information) could harm our reputation, compel us to comply with disparate state breach notification laws, require us to verify the correctness of database contents and otherwise subject us to liability under laws that protect personal data, resulting in increased costs or loss of revenue. If we are unable to prevent such security breaches or privacy violations or implement satisfactory remedial measures, our operations could be disrupted, and we may suffer loss of reputation, financial loss and other regulatory penalties because of lost or misappropriated information, including sensitive consumer data. In addition, these breaches and other inappropriate access can be difficult to detect, and any delay in identifying them may lead to increased harm of the type described above.
Any such breach or interruption could compromise our networks or those of our third-party providers, and the information stored there could be inaccessible or could be accessed by unauthorized parties, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such interruption in access, improper access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, such as HIPAA, and regulatory penalties. Unauthorized access, loss or dissemination could also disrupt our operations, including our ability to perform tests, provide test results, bill payers or patients, process claims and appeals, provide customer assistance services, conduct research and development activities, collect, process and prepare company financial information, provide information about our current and future products and other patient and clinician education and outreach efforts through our website, and manage the administrative aspects of our business and damage our reputation, any of which could adversely affect our business. Any such breach could also result in the compromise of our trade secrets and other proprietary information, which could adversely affect our competitive position.
In addition, the interpretation and application of consumer, health-related, privacy and data protection laws in the U.S., the EU and elsewhere are often uncertain, contradictory and in flux. It is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices. If so, this could result in government-imposed fines or orders requiring that we change our practices, which could adversely affect our business. Complying with these various laws could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices and compliance procedures in a manner adverse to our business.
If we fail to comply with the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute and similar state and third country laws, we could be subject to criminal and civil penalties and exclusion from federally funded healthcare programs including the Medicare and Medicaid programs and equivalent third country programs, which would have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
A provision of the Social Security Act, commonly referred to as the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, prohibits the knowing and willful offer, payment, solicitation or receipt of any form of remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward the referring, ordering, leasing, purchasing or arranging for, or recommending the ordering, purchasing or leasing of, items or services payable, in whole or in part, by Medicare, Medicaid or any other federal healthcare program. Although there are a number of statutory exemptions and regulatory safe harbors to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute protecting certain common business arrangements and activities from prosecution or regulatory sanctions, the exemptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly, and practices that do not fit squarely within an exemption or safe harbor may be subject to scrutiny. The federal Anti-Kickback Statute is very broad in scope and many of its provisions have not been uniformly or definitively interpreted by existing case law or regulations. In addition, most of the states have adopted laws similar to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, and some of these laws are even broader than the federal Anti-Kickback Statute in that their prohibitions may apply to items or services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state programs or, in several states, apply regardless of the source of payment. Violations of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute may result in substantial criminal, civil or administrative penalties, damages, fines and exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs.
All of our future financial relationships with U.S. healthcare providers, purchasers, formulary managers, and others who provide products or services to federal healthcare program beneficiaries will potentially be governed by the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and similar state laws. We believe our operations will be in compliance with the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and similar state laws. However, we cannot be certain that we will not be subject to investigations or litigation alleging violations of these laws, which could be time-consuming and costly to us and could divert management’s attention from operating our business, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, if our arrangements were found to violate the federal Anti-Kickback Statute or similar state laws, the consequences of such violations would likely have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
There are other federal and state laws that may affect our ability to operate, including the federal civil False Claims Act, which prohibits, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment of government funds or knowingly making, using or causing to be made or used, a false record or statement material to an obligation to pay money to the government or knowingly concealing or knowingly and improperly avoiding, decreasing, or concealing an obligation to pay money to the federal government. Moreover, we may be subject to other federal false claim laws, including, among others, federal criminal healthcare fraud and false statement statutes that extend to non-government health benefit programs. Moreover, there are analogous state laws. Violations of these laws can result in substantial criminal, civil or administrative penalties, damages, fines and exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs.
Similar restrictions are imposed by the national legislation of many third countries in which our medical devices will be marketed. Moreover, the provisions of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1997 and other similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from providing money or anything of value to officials of foreign governments, foreign political parties, or international organizations with the intent to obtain or retain business or seek a business advantage. Recently, there has been a substantial increase in anti-bribery law enforcement activity by U.S. regulators, with more aggressive and frequent investigations and enforcement by both the SEC and the Department of Justice. A determination that our operations or activities violated U.S. or foreign laws or regulations could result in imposition of substantial fines, interruption of business, loss of supplier, vendor or other third-party relationships, termination of necessary licenses and permits, and other legal or equitable sanctions. In addition, lawsuits brought by private litigants may also follow as a consequence.
Risks Related to Our Operations in Israel
Exchange rate fluctuations between the U.S. dollar, the NIS and the Euro and inflation may negatively affect our earnings and we may not be able to hedge our currency exchange risks successfully.
The U.S. dollar is our functional and reporting currency. However, a significant portion of our operating expenses, including personnel and facilities related expenses, are incurred in NIS. As a result, we are exposed to the risks that the NIS may appreciate relative to the U.S. dollar, or, if the NIS instead devalues relative to the U.S. dollar, that the inflation rate in Israel may exceed such rate of devaluation of the NIS, or that the timing of such devaluation may lag behind inflation in Israel. In any such event, the dollar cost of our operations in Israel would increase and our dollar-denominated results of operations would be adversely affected. The Israeli rate of inflation has not had a material adverse effect on our financial condition during 2015, 2016 and 2017. In addition, we expect to incur operating expenses denominated in various currencies, and therefore, our operating results are also subject to fluctuations due to changes in the various exchange rates. Given our general lack of currency hedging arrangements to protect us from fluctuations in the exchange rates of the NIS, the Euro and other foreign currencies in relation to the U.S. dollar (and/or from inflation of such foreign currencies), we may be exposed to material adverse effects from such movements. We cannot predict any future trends in the rate of inflation in Israel or the rate of devaluation (if any) of the NIS against any other currency.
Our principal offices, research and development facilities and some of our suppliers are located in Israel and, therefore, our business, financial condition and results of operation may be adversely affected by political, economic and military instability in Israel.
We are incorporated under Israeli law and our principal executive offices are located in Israel. In addition, all of our employees and officers, and most of our directors, are residents of Israel. Accordingly, political, economic and military conditions in Israel may directly affect our business. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, a number of armed conflicts have taken place between Israel and its neighboring Arab countries, the Hamas (an Islamist militia and political group that has historically controlled the Gaza strip) and the Hezbollah (an Islamist militia and political group based in Lebanon). Any hostilities involving Israel or the interruption or curtailment of trade between Israel and its trading partners could adversely affect our operations and results of operations. Ongoing and revived hostilities or other Israeli political or economic factors, such as, an interruption of operations at the Tel Aviv airport, could prevent or delay shipments of our components or products. If continued or resumed, these hostilities may negatively affect business conditions in Israel in general and our business in particular. In the event that hostilities disrupt the ongoing operation of our facilities or the airports and seaports on which we depend to import and export our supplies and product candidates, our operations may be materially adversely affected.
In addition, instability in the region may lead to deterioration in the political and trade relationships that exist between the State of Israel and certain other countries. Any armed conflicts, terrorist activities or political instability in the region could adversely affect business conditions, could harm our results of operations and could make it more difficult for us to raise capital. Parties with whom we do business may sometimes decline to travel to Israel during periods of heightened unrest or tension, forcing us to make alternative arrangements when necessary in order to meet our business partners face to face. Several countries, principally in the Middle East, still restrict doing business with Israel and Israeli companies, and additional countries may impose restrictions on doing business with Israel and Israeli companies if hostilities in Israel or political instability in the region continues or increases. Similarly, Israeli companies are limited in conducting business with entities from several countries. For instance, in 2008, the Israeli legislature passed a law forbidding any investments in entities that transact business with Iran. In addition, the political and security situation in Israel may result in parties with whom we have agreements involving performance in Israel claiming that they are not obligated to perform their commitments under those agreements pursuant to force majeure provisions in such agreements.
Our commercial insurance does not cover losses that may occur as a result of an event associated with the security situation in the Middle East. Although the Israeli government has in the past covered the reinstatement value of certain damages that were caused by terrorist attacks or acts of war, we cannot assure you that this government coverage will be maintained or, if maintained, will be sufficient to compensate us fully for damages incurred. Any losses or damages incurred by us could have a material adverse effect on our business. Any armed conflicts or political instability in the region would likely negatively affect business conditions generally and could harm our results of operations and product development.
Furthermore, in the past, the State of Israel and Israeli companies have been subjected to economic boycotts. Several countries still restrict business with the State of Israel and with Israeli companies. These restrictive laws and policies may have an adverse impact on our operating results, financial conditions or the expansion of our business. Similarly, Israeli corporations are limited in conducting business with entities from several countries.
Your rights and responsibilities as a shareholder will be governed by Israeli law which differs in some material respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders of U.S. companies.
The rights and responsibilities of the holders of our Ordinary Shares are governed by our articles of association, as most recently amended on March 16, 2017, or the Amended Articles and by Israeli law. These rights and responsibilities differ in some material respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders in U.S.-based corporations. In particular, a shareholder of an Israeli company has a duty to act in good faith and in a customary manner in exercising its rights and performing its obligations towards the company and other shareholders, and to refrain from abusing its power in the company, including, among other things, in voting at a general meeting of shareholders on matters such as amendments to a company’s articles of association, increases in a company’s authorized share capital, mergers and acquisitions and related party transactions requiring shareholder approval. In addition, a shareholder who is aware that it possesses the power to determine the outcome of a shareholder vote or to appoint or prevent the appointment of a director or executive officer in the company has a duty of fairness toward the company. There is limited case law available to assist us in understanding the nature of this duty or the implications of these provisions. These provisions may be interpreted to impose additional obligations and liabilities on holders of our Ordinary Shares that are not typically imposed on shareholders of U.S. corporations.
It may be difficult to enforce a judgment of a U.S. court against us, our officers and directors in Israel or the United States, to assert U.S. securities laws claims in Israel or to serve process on our officers and directors.
We were incorporated in Israel. All of our executive officers and directors reside outside of the U.S., and all of our assets and most of the assets of these persons are located outside the U.S. Therefore, a judgment obtained against us, or any of these persons, including a judgment based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws, may not be collectible in the U.S. and may not necessarily be enforced by an Israeli court. It also may be difficult to affect service of process on these persons in the United States or to assert U.S. securities law claims in original actions instituted in Israel. Additionally, it may be difficult for an investor, or any other person or entity, to initiate an action with respect to U.S. securities laws in Israel. Israeli courts may refuse to hear a claim based on an alleged violation of U.S. securities laws reasoning that Israel is not the most appropriate forum in which to bring such a claim. In addition, even if an Israeli court agrees to hear a claim, it may determine that Israeli law and not U.S. law is applicable to the claim. If U.S. law is found to be applicable, the content of applicable U.S. law must be proven as a fact by expert witnesses, which can be a time consuming and costly process. Certain matters of procedure will also be governed by Israeli law. There is little binding case law in Israel that addresses the matters described above. As a result of the difficulty associated with enforcing a judgment against us in Israel, you may not be able to collect any damages awarded by either a U.S. or foreign court. See “Enforceability of Civil Liabilities” for additional information on your ability to enforce a civil claim against us and our executive officers or directors named in this annual report on Form 20-F.
Provisions of Israeli law and our Amended Articles may delay, prevent or otherwise impede a merger with, or an acquisition of, us, even when the terms of such a transaction are favorable to us and our shareholders.
Israeli corporate law regulates mergers, requires tender offers for acquisitions of shares above specified thresholds, requires special approvals for transactions involving directors, officers or significant shareholders and regulates other matters that may be relevant to such types of transactions. For example, a tender offer for all of a company’s issued and outstanding shares can only be completed if the acquirer receives positive responses from the holders of at least 95% of the issued share capital and the approval of a majority of the offerees that do not have a personal interest in the tender offer, unless at least 98% of the company’s outstanding shares are tendered. Furthermore, the shareholders, including those who indicated their acceptance of the tender offer (unless the acquirer stipulated in its tender offer that a shareholder that accepts the offer may not seek appraisal rights), may, at any time within six months following the completion of the tender offer, petition an Israeli court to alter the consideration for the acquisition. In addition, a merger may not be consummated unless at least 50 days have passed from the date on which a proposal for approval of the merger was filed by each party with the Israeli Registrar of Companies and at least 30 days have passed from the date on which the merger was approved by the shareholders of each party. See “Provisions Restricting Change in Control in our Company” for additional information.
Furthermore, Israeli tax considerations may make potential transactions unappealing to us or to our shareholders whose country of residence does not have a tax treaty with Israel exempting such shareholders from Israeli tax. For example, Israeli tax law does not recognize tax-free share exchanges to the same extent as U.S. tax law. With respect to mergers, Israeli tax law allows for tax deferral in certain circumstances but makes the deferral contingent on the fulfillment of a number of conditions, including, in some cases, a holding period of two years from the date of the transaction during which sales and dispositions of shares of the participating companies are subject to certain restrictions. Moreover, with respect to certain share swap transactions, the tax deferral is limited in time, and when such time expires, the tax becomes payable even if no disposition of the shares has occurred.
We received Israeli government grants for certain of our research and development activities. The terms of those grants may require us to pay royalties and to satisfy specified conditions in order to manufacture products and transfer technologies outside of Israel. We may be required to pay penalties in addition to repayment of the grants.
From inception through December 31, 2017, we have been awarded an aggregate of approximately $272,000 in the form of grants from Israel Innovation Authority, or the IIA, formerly known as Israel’s Office of the Chief Scientist of the Ministry of Economy. The requirements and restrictions for such grants are found in the Israeli Encouragement of Research and Development Law, 5744-1984 and the regulations, or the Research Law. Under the Research Law, royalties of 3% to 5% on the revenues derived from sales of products or services developed in whole or in part using these IIA grants are payable to the Israeli government. We developed our technologies, at least in part, with funds from these grants, and accordingly we would be obligated to pay these royalties on sales of any of our product candidates that achieve regulatory approval. The maximum aggregate royalties paid generally cannot exceed 100% of the grants made to us, plus annual interest equal to the 12-month LIBOR applicable to dollar deposits, as published on the first business day of each calendar year. As of December 31, 2017, we had not paid any royalties to the IIA. In 2017, we did not receive a grant from the IIA. When a company develops know-how, technology or products using IIA grants, the terms of these grants and the Research Law restrict the transfer of such know-how, and the transfer of manufacturing or manufacturing rights of such products, technologies or know-how outside of Israel, without the prior approval of the IIA. Therefore, the discretionary approval of an IIA committee would be required for any transfer to third parties inside or outside of Israel of know-how or manufacturing or manufacturing rights related to those aspects of such technologies. We may not receive those approvals. Furthermore, the IIA may impose certain conditions on any arrangement under which it permits us to transfer technology or development out of Israel.
The transfer of IIA-supported technology or know-how outside of Israel may involve the payment of significant amounts, depending upon the value of the transferred technology or know-how, our research and development expenses, the amount of IIA support, the time of completion of the IIA-supported research project and other factors. These restrictions and requirements for payment may impair our ability to sell or otherwise transfer our technology assets outside of Israel or to outsource or transfer development or manufacturing activities with respect to any product or technology outside of Israel. Furthermore, the consideration available to our shareholders in a transaction involving the transfer outside of Israel of technology or know-how developed with IIA funding (such as a merger or similar transaction) may be reduced by any amounts that we are required to pay to the IIA.
These restrictions will continue to apply even after we have repaid the full amount of royalties on the grants. For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017, we recorded grants totaling $0, $166,046 and $0 from the IIA, respectively. The grants represented 0%, 23% and 0%, respectively, of our gross research and development expenditures for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017.
Risks Related to Our Ordinary Shares
There is no established public trading market for our Ordinary Shares and our shareholders may not be able to resell their Ordinary Shares.
There is no established public trading market for our securities. Our shares were initially quoted on the OTCQB on March 7, 2017. We cannot assure that a regular trading market will develop or that if developed, will be sustained. In the absence of a trading market, a shareholder may be unable to liquidate its investment, which will result in the loss of such shareholder’s investment.
Future issuance of our Ordinary Shares could dilute the interests of existing shareholders.
We may issue additional Ordinary Shares in the future. The issuance of a substantial amount of Ordinary Shares could have the effect of substantially diluting the interests of our shareholders. In addition, the sale of a substantial amount of Ordinary Shares in the public market, in the initial issuance, in a situation in which we acquire a company and the acquired company receives Ordinary Shares as consideration and the acquired company subsequently sells its Ordinary Shares, or by investors who acquired such Ordinary Shares in a private placement, could have an adverse effect on the market price of our Ordinary Shares.
We have a significant number of options and warrants outstanding, and while these options and warrants are outstanding, it may be more difficult to raise additional equity capital.
As of May 10, 2018, we had outstanding options and warrants to purchase 1,758,315 and 5,959,406 Ordinary Shares, respectively. The holders of these options and warrants are given the opportunity to profit from a rise in the market price of our Ordinary Shares. We may find it more difficult to raise additional equity capital while these options and warrants are outstanding. At any time during which these warrants are likely to be exercised, we may be unable to obtain additional equity capital on more favorable terms from other sources. Additionally, the exercise of these options and warrants will cause the increase of our outstanding Ordinary Shares, which could have the effect of substantially diluting the interests of our current shareholders.
The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or the JOBS Act, and our status as a foreign private issuer will allow us to postpone the date by which we must comply with some of the laws and regulations intended to protect investors and to reduce the amount of information we provide in our reports filed with the SEC, which could undermine investor confidence in our company and adversely affect the market price of our Ordinary Shares.
For as long as we remain an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various requirements that are applicable to public companies that are not emerging growth companies including:
|●||the provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requiring that our independent registered public accounting firm provide an attestation report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting;|
|●||Section 107 of the JOBS Act, which provides that an “emerging growth company” can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This means that an “emerging growth company” can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We may elect to delay such adoption of new or revised accounting standards. As a result of this adoption, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with the public company effective date; and|
|●||any rules that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board requiring mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report on the financial statements.|
We intend to take advantage of these exemptions until we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the date of our first sale of common equity securities pursuant to an effective registration statement under the Securities Act, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our Ordinary Shares that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June 30, and (2) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period.
We cannot predict if investors will find our Ordinary Shares less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Ordinary Shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Ordinary Shares, and our share price may be more volatile and may decline.
We are a foreign private issuer and, as a result, we are not subject to U.S. proxy rules and are subject to reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those applicable to a U.S. issuer.
Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. publicly reporting companies, including (i) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act, (ii) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time, and (iii) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, or current reports on Form 8-K, upon the occurrence of specified significant events. In addition, while U.S. domestic issuers that are not large accelerated filers or accelerated filers are required to file their annual reports on Form 10-K within 90 days after the end of each fiscal year, foreign private issuers are not required to file their annual report on Form 20-F until 120 days after the end of each fiscal year. Foreign private issuers are also exempt from the Regulation Fair Disclosure, aimed at preventing issuers from making selective disclosures of material information.
We have never paid cash dividends on our capital stock and we do not anticipate paying any dividends in the foreseeable future. Consequently, any gains from an investment in our Ordinary Shares will likely depend on whether the price of our Ordinary Shares increases, which may not occur.
We have not paid cash dividends on any of our classes of capital stock to date and we currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to fund the development and growth of our business. In addition, the Israeli Companies Law 5759-1999, or the Companies Law, imposes restrictions on our ability to declare and pay dividends. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our Ordinary Shares will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future. Consequently, in the foreseeable future, you will likely only experience a gain from your investment in our Ordinary Shares if the price of our Ordinary Shares increases beyond the price in which you originally acquired the Ordinary Shares.
The potential future application of the SEC’s “penny stock” rules to our Ordinary Shares could limit trading activity in the market, and our shareholders may find it more difficult to sell their shares.
It is expected that our Ordinary Shares will be trading at less than $5.00 per share and will therefore be subject to the SEC’s penny stock rules. Penny stocks generally are equity securities with a price of less than $5.00. Penny stock rules require a broker-dealer, prior to a transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from the rules, to deliver a standardized risk disclosure document that provides information about penny stocks and the risks in the penny stock market. The broker-dealer also must provide the customer with current bid and offer quotations for the penny stock, the compensation of the broker-dealer and its salesperson in the transaction, and monthly account statements showing the market value of each penny stock held in the customer’s account. The broker-dealer must also make a special written determination that the penny stock is a suitable investment for the purchaser and receive the purchaser’s written agreement to the transaction. These requirements may have the effect of reducing the level of trading activity, if any, in the secondary market for a security that becomes subject to the penny stock rules. The additional burdens imposed upon broker-dealers by such requirements may discourage broker-dealers from effecting transactions in our securities, which could severely limit their market price and liquidity of our securities. These requirements may restrict the ability of broker-dealers to sell our Ordinary Shares and may affect our shareholders’ ability to resell their Ordinary Shares.
In the event a market develops for our Ordinary Shares, the market price of our Ordinary Shares may be volatile.
In the event a market develops for our Ordinary Shares, the market price of our Ordinary Shares may be highly volatile, as is the stock market in general, and the market for OTC quoted stocks in particular. Some of the factors that may materially affect the market price of our Ordinary Shares are beyond our control, such as changes in financial estimates by industry and securities analysts, conditions or trends in the industry in which we operate or sales of our Ordinary Shares. These factors may materially adversely affect the market price of our Ordinary Shares, regardless of our performance. In addition, the public stock markets have experienced extreme price and trading volume volatility. This volatility has significantly affected the market prices of securities of many companies for reasons frequently unrelated to the operating performance of the specific companies. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our Ordinary Shares.
A. History and Development of the Company
Our legal and commercial name is Todos Medical Ltd. We were incorporated in the State of Israel in April 2010, and are subject to the Companies Law. Since March 7, 2017, our Ordinary Shares have been quoted on the OTCQB under the symbol TOMDF. In January 2016, we incorporated our fully held subsidiary, Todos (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. In March 2016, Todos (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. changed its name to Todos Medical Singapore Pte. Ltd., or Todos Singapore. As of December 31, 2017, Todos Singapore has not yet commenced its business operations.
As of the date of this annual report on form 20-F, we have yet to finalize a business plan or a budget for the upcoming fiscal year, and therefore, under the guidance of our board of directors, we have paused all research and development activities and other operational activities, aside from the completion of a trial the following trials: Kaplan and Belinson (Israel) TM-B1 and Kaplan and Belinson (Israel) TM-C1. We are in the process of inquiring into different fundraising routes through which we may successfully raise additional funding in order to commercialize our cancer detection kits and to develop and commercialize any future products. As of the date of this annual report on Form 20-F, no such fundraising route has presented itself.
We are an IVD for cancer diagnosis company, engaged in the development of a series of patient-friendly blood tests for the detection of a variety of cancers based on our TBIA, a proprietary method for detection of solid tumors using peripheral blood analysis. The method incorporates biochemistry, physics and signal processing. The TBIA detection method is based on the cancer’s influence on the immune system which triggers biochemical changes in the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell, or PBMC, and plasma. Our core technology, TBIA, is based on research conducted and technology invented by the research teams at BGU and Soroka, whose intellectual property has been licensed to us in consideration of our contractual obligation to pay certain licensing fees. On December 9, 2013, our TBIA test obtained the CE mark approval.
We focus our efforts on the goal of creating a new methodology for cancer detection tests that make cancer detection more accurate, accessible, and affordable to the general public.
Currently, we are developing cancer detection tests using IVD for both colon cancer and breast cancer. It is our plan to develop additional tests for other types of cancers in the future.
Our principal executive office is located at 1 Hamada Street, Rehovot, Israel and our telephone number in Israel is +972-8-633-3964.
Our web address is www.todosmedical.com. The information contained on our website or available through our website is not incorporated by reference into and should not be considered a part of this annual report on Form 20-F, and the reference to our website in this annual report on Form 20-F is an inactive textual reference only. Puglisi & Associates is our agent in the United States, and its address is 850 Library Avenue, Suite 204 Newark, Delaware 19711.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act, as implemented under the JOBS Act. As such, we are eligible to, and intend to, take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including but not limited to not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of the SEC rules under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the date of our first sale of equity securities pursuant to an effective registration statement under the Securities Act, (b) in which we have annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, or (c) tin which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer,” which means the market value of our Ordinary Shares that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June, and (2) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period.
We are a foreign private issuer as defined by the rules under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act. Our status as a foreign private issuer also exempts us from compliance with certain laws and regulations of the SEC including the proxy rules, the short-swing profits recapture rules, and certain governance requirements such as independent director oversight of the nomination of directors and executive compensation. In addition, we will not be required to file annual, quarterly and current reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. domestic companies registered under the Exchange Act.
Our capital expenditures for the years 2017, 2016 and 2015 amounted to $3,596, $34,971 and $117,788, respectively. These expenditures are primarily attributable to the purchase of laboratory equipment used in our research and development program. Our purchases of fixed assets primarily include leasehold improvements, computers, and equipment used for the research and development of our products, and we financed these expenditures primarily from cash on hand and partially from grants received from the IIA as detailed above.
B. Business Overview
Since our inception, we have focused our efforts on the goal of creating a new methodology for cancer detection tests that make cancer detection more accurate, accessible, and affordable to the general public. Our core technology, which serves as the foundation of our company, was originally researched and developed by BGU along with Soroka. Both institutions are located in Israel. We have the exclusive worldwide rights to use this intellectual property for commercial and research and development purposes under a license agreement. We are not currently in compliance with the repayment terms of the license agreement with our licensor. As such, we are currently negotiating an amendment to the license agreement which would allow us to pay the accrued but unpaid payments due thereunder at a later date. Currently, we are developing cancer detection tests using IVD for both colon cancer and breast cancer. In the future, we intend to develop additional tests for other types of cancers.
Cancer is the second largest cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, in 2012, 14 million people were newly diagnosed with cancer and there were 8.8 million cancer related deaths in 2015. This number is expected to rise by 70% in the next twenty years. The World Health Organization further states that early detection can greatly reduce the current mortality rates. The cost of cancer in the EU alone was stated at over 51 billion Euro for 2009 (Report From The Commission To The European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic And Social Committee And The Committee Of The Regions published September 23, 2014). Meanwhile, the cost of cancer in the United States for the year 2001 was over $88.7 billion. The costs of cancer in terms of lives and suffering as well as financial, are staggering on a global basis.
While much work must be done to reduce the incidence rates of cancer and the treatment of cancer itself, we believe the early detection of cancer is a critical step towards saving lives. The EU has established a target of conducting cancer detection for 300 million people, annually. In 2008, only 56 million cancer detections were preformed (International Agency for Research on Cancer, Cancer Detection in EU 2008). Similarly, the United States has set a target to screen 200 million people per year (American Cancer Society, Cancer Detection in 2008).
Although cancer detections are necessary if not vital, there are many reasons that they are not more widely used. We believe these reasons include:
|●||High cost per screen;|
|●||Uncomfortable for the patient (mammogram, colonoscopy, MRI);|
|●||Not accessible to large segments of the population;|
|●||Risk is involved (Radiation and Invasive tests);|
|●||Requires specialists to interpret results; and|
|●||Low sensitivity or specificity.|
In summary, we believe that a large segment of world-wide population who need to be checked regularly for cancer forego the detection process due to the above reasons.
Cancer Detection Kits
Our product serves as preliminary cancer detection tool and cannot be regarded as a final diagnosis. Our product consists of a simple blood test that causes what we believe to be minor risk and pain to the patient (as demonstrated by the diagram below) that is analyzed by our proprietary technology to detect the presence of various cancers. Our test analysis results will be provided to the healthcare provider who may decide to refer the patient for additional detections such as colonoscopy for further determination of cancer presence. Our cancer detection kit includes a special glass slide upon which the PBMC and the plasma are placed. Some tests might also include a salt solution that is needed for the blood separation process. There is a different test for each cancer type.
We develop several products for cancer screening and diagnosis as follows:
TM-B1 is a test designed specifically for breast cancer screening. It is indicated for women who meet the following criteria: female subjects aged 25 years and older, without a diagnosis of inflammatory or autoimmune disease. TM-B1 is to be used as a diagnostic method to indicate whether a malignancy is present or not. TM-B1 assay results should be used in conjunction with other common diagnostic tests as part of breast cancer screening.
TM-B2 is a test indicated for women who meet the following criteria: Female subjects, aged 25 years and older, without a diagnosis of inflammatory or autoimmune disease, who were diagnosed as presenting with a Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System, or BI-RADS, score of three or four (or equivalent). TM-B2 is to be used to further assess if a malignancy is present or not. TM-B2 test results should be used in conjunction with other common diagnostic tests as part of breast cancer screening and should not be used as stand-alone assay.
The TM-C1 analysis method is intended for the qualitative detection, and for the semi-quantitative detection, of biochemical characteristics of the infrared readings of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma, which may be indicative of polyps and colorectal cancer. The TM-C1 screening method may integrate with an overall screening program for colorectal cancer.
Blood samples are taken from the patient in the clinic. The mononuclear cells and plasma are separated from the blood and measured by the infrared, or IR, spectrometer. This data is sent to our server via the internet cloud, which will process the data and send the results via the internet cloud to the respective doctors.
We will sell the test kit to the lab or clinic, that lab will process the blood sample and send the spectrum from the spectrometer to our server via the internet cloud. After our analysis (instant process) we will send the result to the lab.
Because we are still in the clinical trials stage, we are subject to certain challenges, including, among others:
|●||our technology has been tested on a limited basis and therefore we cannot assure the product’s clinical value;|
|●||although we have obtained CE mark approval for our tests in the EU, the European regulatory demands, regarding IVD, have been recently revised and major changes need to be made in order to keep our CE Mark. These changes need to be made until 2022. It will require significant efforts and funds to update our test accordingly;|
|●||although we have obtained CE mark approval for our tests in the EU, we still need to obtain the requisite regulatory approvals in the United States and other markets where we plan to focus our commercialization efforts;|
|●||as of May 10, 2018, our cash holdings amounted to $305,000. Due to the pause of certain activities, we believe that we will be able to use currently available capital resources for up to between 3 to 4 months. We need to raise an amount of capital sufficient to continue the development of our technology, obtain the requisite regulatory approvals, and commercialize our current and future products; and|
|●||we need to obtain reimbursement coverage from third-party payors for procedures using our tests.|
Our ability to operate our business and achieve our goals and strategies is subject to numerous risks as described more fully in “Risk Factors” above.
In the last decade many scientific articles have been published showing that the body’s immune system detects the existence of cancer but, for various reasons, fails to attack it. For our developed detection methodology, only a small amount of peripheral blood from the patient is needed. The method is multidisciplinary and incorporates hematology, biochemistry, physics and signal processing and is based on infrared spectroscopy measurements of the blood sample and computerized analysis. The basic concept in our technology is to measure the biochemical changes in the PBMC and plasma, due to cancer presence. As the PBMC are part of the body’s immune system, we believe our methodology will detect overall biochemical changes of the immune system due to cancer presence. The technology involves special IR, measurement of a simple blood sample. We are using the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis, or FTIR, spectrometer for reading the biochemical content of the PBMC and plasma. We believe the FTIR has some unique advantages in this aspect as it requires no reagents and the reading is swift. Most of the biochemical materials can be detected using the FTIR. The test uses conventional lab methods and the mathematical analysis is made automatically by proprietary algorithms.
The TBIA detection method is based on the cancer’s influence on the immune system which triggers cellular and biochemical changes in the PBMC and plasma. These biochemical changes are detected by the FTIR whose results undergo rigorous testing of sophisticated signal processing in order to detect if the entire biochemical signature under detection have the typical biochemical indications for cancer existence. The principle behind our proprietary technology, TBIA, is to observe the immune system response to tumor presence anywhere in the body rather than looking for the tumor cells themselves. We analyze multiple elements of the biochemical signature (including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and carbohydrates) of the effected immune cells from the peripheral blood in conjunction with plasma using infrared spectroscopy, instead of focusing on a single specific protein as a biomarker.
Our research, using spectral analysis, thus far indicates that the “IR signatures” of several types of cancer are significantly distinct from the “infrared signatures” of healthy patients. These differences can be related to several biological effects which exist during malignancy.
Our plan was to conduct two-stage clinical trials - the first was a training stage and the second is a validation stage. We define, in consultation with our bio-statisticians, our algorithm development team and our future hospital partners, the number of participants needed for each clinical trial. While the minimum number we are targeting is 200 participants per trial, the number may vary from trial to trial. We completed the first stage (training) for breast cancer at a single site in Israel and a single site in Singapore. We intend to complete the first stage of the clinical trials for colorectal cancer at two sites in Israel. In the training stage, we aim to train our algorithm to: (a) determine the final performances of the test in terms of accuracy and reproductability; and (b) optimize the algorithm so that it will be compatible with the population of a country where we perform such clinical trials. In this process, we make the necessary adaptation to our proprietary technology, using mathematical tools in order to reach substantially the same diagnosis results as are found in earlier clinical studies we conducted between 2010 and 2013, as described under “Business - Past Clinical Studies” (which form the baseline of comparison). This baseline may, in the future, include the diagnosis results found in the fifth clinical study, which ended on October 2017, described under “Business - Past Clinical Studies”. Once the necessary adaptation to our proprietary technology is made, the second stage of clinical trials will be to validate that the tests are indeed able to detect breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Prior to beginning any clinical trials, a local Institutional review board, or IRB, needs to grant us approval to begin the trial. The second stage (validation) is a blinded trial and intended to verify the performances of our product following the aforementioned amendments implemented following the first stage. The validation may not meet our expectations, regulatory demands and/or other partner’s demands.
Past Clinical Studies
Four clinical studies whose results were published in what we believe to be well-known peer-reviewed journals have been conducted to date, all of which were not blind tests. The first of these studies was conducted by B.G. Negev Technologies and Applications Ltd., or BG Negev, a wholly owned subsidiary of BGU while we conducted the other three studies. The goal of these studies was to evaluate whether TBIA could be a novel, simple, and low-cost method for the early detection of cancer.
“Sensitivity” as used below is the number of detected cancers divided by the full population having cancer that participated in the study. A sensitivity of 100% means that our product detected cancer in all of the people with cancer that were diagnosed using our product. A sensitivity of 80% means that out of 100 people with cancer the test will detect 80 people as being diagnosed with the relevant cancer and the rest will be defined as healthy.
“Specificity” as used below is the number of detected healthy subjects divided by the full population of healthy subjects that participated in the study. A specificity of 80% means that out of 100 healthy people who participated in the study - we diagnosed 80 people as healthy. The 20 other healthy subjects were falsely diagnosed as having cancer.
The First Study was conducted by BGU. This study included 15 acute leukemic children, 19 children who had a high fever with a diagnosis of infection or inflammation, and 27 healthy volunteers. T test and cluster analysis was done with the following results for control versus leukemia and infection versus leukemia. For all, P value <= 0.05. Cluster analysis - all cancers were distinct in a different branch for healthy and infection. Based on the chosen wave numbers the cluster analysis was able to distinguish completely between leukemia and control groups. The first objective of the study was to distinguish between children diagnosed as having acute leukemia and healthy subjects by FTIR spectroscopy analysis of PBMCs. The second objective was to follow and analyze leukemic patients’ response to chemotherapy by FTIR spectroscopy of PBMCs in comparison to what we believe to be the standard practice of bone marrow examination by flow cytometry. A third objective of the clinical trial was to distinguish between leukemic children and children with similar clinical symptoms such as high fever and white blood count (which also appears following infection or inflammation) using FTIR technology.
Results of study:
The first objective was achieved successfully - all subjects, healthy and leukemic, were diagnosed correctly - 100% sensitivity and specificity. The second objective of the follow-up treatment was achieved by identifying three different responses to treatment by FTIR method - good, intermediate and unfavorable response. FTIR identified responses to treatment earlier (33 days vs. 100 days) than flow-cytometry analysis of bone marrow. A good response (meaning, a good response to chemotherapy) was a fast return of the PBMC values towards normal control values (according to the FTIR method). An intermediate response was a slow return of the PBMC values towards normal control values. An unfavorable response was the PBMC values not returning towards normal control values. No T test was done in order to distinguish between the three tendencies. The third objective was achieved as well. The children having similar symptoms to leukemia were successfully distinguished from children with acute leukemia by FTIR analysis - 100% sensitivity and specificity. These results were published in the Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (Zelig et al. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1810 (2011) 827-835).
Below are details regarding the other four studies that we completed on our own. The results are described as sensitivity and specificity.
The Second Study included 41 cancer patients and 45 healthy volunteers. This study was intended to evaluate the utility of our method in detecting several types of cancers using an advance computerized algorithm. The performances of the algorithm presented what we believe were promising results for breast and colorectal cancer as well as other cancers. Following these results, we chose to focus our efforts into the detection of breast and colorectal cancers.
The first objective of the study was to distinguish between cancer patients of multiple types and healthy subjects by FTIR spectroscopy analysis of PBMCs and plasma - we refer to this as the TM-T1 method - our product for diagnosing multiple types of cancers. All patients were diagnosed by standard practice such as histopathology of tissue samples taken from the tumor. The second objective was to distinguish between different types of cancers utilizing FTIR spectroscopy analysis of PBMCs and plasma.
Results of study:
The first objective of the study was achieved successfully - 93% sensitivity for detecting different types of cancers and 80% specificity for identifying correctly the healthy population. As for the second objective, although different spectral patterns were observed for each type of cancer, indicating that there is the potential of successful classification between the various cancers, the statistical parameters were not established due to low patient numbers for each individual type of cancer, preventing a reliable statistical analysis. As for this objective, our observation was qualitative rather than quantitative. We will need to conduct larger trials in the future in order to better understand and distinguish between different cancers. The results of the study were published in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Journal (Ostrovsky et al. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 60, No. 2, February 2013, 343-353).
The Third Study was conducted between April 27, 2011 and April 26, 2013 at Rabin in Israel. The number of the study was 0336-10-RMC and its purpose was evaluation of our detection method for breast cancer. This study included 29 breast cancer patients and 30 subjects who were healthy or had benign tumors. All subjects were tested for breast cancer by standard detection procedures (mammography / ultrasound) and had not yet undergone surgical treatment, chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
The first objective of the study was to distinguish between cancer patients and healthy subjects or patients having benign tumor using FTIR spectroscopy analysis of PBMCs and plasma - we refer to this as the TM-B1 method - our product for diagnosing breast cancer. The second objective was to distinguish between three groups: cancer patients, patients having benign tumors, and healthy subjects without pathological findings related to breast tumors.
Results of study:
The first objective of the study was achieved successfully - approximately 90% sensitivity for detection of breast cancer and approximately 80% specificity for identifying correctly the healthy patients and patients with benign tumors. As for the second objective, although different spectral patterns were observed for each group - healthy, benign, and malignant, the statistical parameters were not established due to low patient numbers in each group, preventing a reliable statistical analysis. As for this objective, our observation was qualitative rather than quantitative. We will need to conduct larger trials in the future in order to better understand and distinguish between different groups. The results of the study were published in the BMC Cancer Journal (Zelig et al. BMC Cancer (2015) 15:408).
The Fourth Study was conducted between April 27, 2011 and April 26, 2013 at the Rabin in Israel. The number of the study was 0336-10-RMC and its purpose was to evaluate our detection method for colorectal cancer. This study included 30 colorectal cancer and high-grade dysplasia, or HGD, patients, 10 patients with benign polyps and 18 healthy subjects, all tested for colorectal cancer by colonoscopy. The premalignant HGD was joined with the malignant group.
The first objective of the study was to distinguish between cancer patients and healthy subjects using FTIR spectroscopy analysis of PBMCs and plasma, which we refer to as the “TM-C1 method”, our product for diagnosing colorectal cancer. The second objective was to distinguish between three groups: colorectal cancer patients, patients having benign tumors, and healthy subjects without pathological findings related to colorectal tumors such as polyps.
Results of study:
The first objective of the study was achieved successfully - approximately 82% sensitivity for detection of colorectal cancer and approximately 71% specificity for detecting healthy populations without pathological findings. The benign tumors were classified in between the cancer and healthy groups. As for the second objective, although different spectral patterns were observed for each group - healthy, benign, and malignant, the statistical parameters were not established due to low patient numbers in each group preventing a reliable statistical analysis. As for this objective, our observation was qualitative rather than quantitative. We will need to conduct larger trials in the future in order to better understand and distinguish between different groups. The results of the study were published in the Journal of Gastroenterology (Barlev et al. Journal of Gastroenterology (First Online: 26 June 2015): 1-8.).
The Fifth Study was conducted between June 6, 2013 and October 2017 at Kaplan in Israel. The number of the study was 0152-12-KMC. The Training phase at Kaplan has been completed and included 220. All subjects were tested for breast cancer by standard detection procedures (mammography / ultrasound) and have not yet undergone surgical treatment, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. We joined Rabin as an additional multi-central study site for training our algorithm. The number of the study at the Rabin is 0386-17-RMC and will include 105 patients. Rabin study is still on-going.
The first objective of the study was to distinguish between cancer patients and healthy subjects or patients having benign tumors using FTIR spectroscopy analysis of PBMCs and plasma - the TBIA method. The second objective was to distinguish between all three groups: cancer patients, patients with benign tumors and healthy subjects without pathological findings related to breast tumors.
Results of study:
In the training phase, an accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of about 90% was demonstrated. The validation phase has not been completed yet, hence, final results for this study are not yet available.
Clinical Studies in Process
On June 1, 2016, we entered into a clinical trial agreement with the Singapore Hospital for a training trial. We made a judgment, along with the Singapore Hospital, that 280 participants is the appropriate number for the purpose of this training trial. This clinical study evaluated, in terms of sensitivity and specificity, our TM-B1 method for the detection of malignant and benign breast cancer tumors in comparison with standard diagnostic methods.
Under the agreement, the Singapore Hospital was primarily in charge of the recruitment procedure and blood sample collection from recruited participants, all pursuant to the clinical study protocol, which was approved by the Singapore Centralized IRB in April 2016. Analysis of the samples was performed by us. The Singapore Hospital also provided the prognosis of the recruited participants which enabled us to measure the sensitivity and specificity of the TM-B1 method.
Currently, we have yet to receive the results of this study.
In addition, on April 27, 2017, we commenced a training study at Rabin for TM-C1 for colorectal cancer screening. The Kaplan site is about to join Rabin as a multi-central study. In total we aim to recruit 350 patients. The study is prospective, un-blinded, tree arms.
On January 22, 2018, we initiated the validation study at Kaplan for TM-B1 - screening for breast cancer. NIH number NCT03343691. Rabin validation intend to join to this study as a multi-central study. Total of 200 patients are about to participate in the multi-central study. The study is prospective, blinded, double arm.
Currently, we are negotiating an optional site for our second stage (validation stage) of clinical trials in Singapore. The trial will be for the TM-B2 test. This clinical trial concerns the validation of the TM-B2 performances in terms of sensitivity and specificity.
For further details, please refer to “Item 5.Operating and Financial Review and Prospects - Overview.”
The proprietary nature of, and protection for, our current and/or any future product candidates, processes and know-how are important to our business as is our ability to operate without infringing on the proprietary rights of others, and to prevent others from infringing our proprietary rights. We seek patent protection in the United States and internationally for our current and future product candidates we may develop and other technology. In order to protect our proprietary technologies, we rely on combinations of application for patent and trade secret protection, as well as confidentiality agreements with employees, consultants, and third parties.
We have filed and own all rights in the following patent applications, all of which are currently pending or have been issued as patents:
Category I: These applications relate to analysis of an IR spectrum of a PBMC sample. Claims are generally directed to indicating the presence of a solid tumor based on analysis of an IR spectrum of a PBMC sample.
|(1)||US Patent Application 13/701,262. This has claims for a method (process). The claims in this application are generally directed to indicating the presence of a solid tumor in breast tissue based on analysis of an IR spectrum of a PBMC sample. On March 28, 2017, this application issued as US Patent 9,606,057. This patent is expected to expire on June 1, 2031.|
|(2)||US Patent Application 15/443,674. This application is a continuation application of US 13/701,262 and has claims for a method (process) and is expected to expire on June 1, 2031. The claims in this application are generally directed to indicating the presence of a solid tumor in tissue of a gastrointestinal tract based on analysis of an IR spectrum of a PBMC sample.|
|(3)||European Patent Application No. 11789348.7. This has claims for a method (process) and a system and is expected to expire on June 1, 2031.|
|(4)||Israel Patent Application 223,237. This has claims for a method (process), a system, and for a computer program product and is expected to expire on June 1, 2031.|
Category II: These applications relate to analysis of an IR spectrum of a blood plasma sample. Claims are generally directed to indicating the presence of a solid tumor based on analysis of an IR spectrum of a blood plasma sample.
|(5)||US Patent Application 14/116,506. This has claims for a method (process), a system, and for a computer program product. The claims in this application are generally directed to indicating the presence of a solid tumor in a gastrointestinal tract based on analysis of an IR spectrum of a blood plasma sample. On August 1, 2017, this application issued as US Patent 9,719,937. This patent is expected to expire on May 10, 2032.|
|(6)||US Patent Application 15/645,168. This application is a continuation application of US 14/116,506. This has claims for a method (process), a system, and for a computer program product and is expected to expire on May 10, 2032. The claims in this application are generally directed to indicating the presence of a solid tumor in breast tissue based on analysis of an IR spectrum of a blood plasma sample.|
|(7)||European Patent Application No. 12782256.7. This has claims for a method (process) and a system and is expected to expire on May 10, 2032.|
|(8)||Israel Patent Application 229,109. This has claims for a method (process), a system, and for a computer program product and is expected to expire on May 10, 2032. On September 13, 2017, we received a notice of allowance from the Israel Patent Office regarding this application.|
Category III: These applications relate to analysis of an IR spectrum of a blood plasma sample and PBMC samples.
|(9)||US Patent Application 14/894,128. This has claims for a method (process). The claims in this application are generally directed to (i) analysis of an IR spectrum of a PBMC to indicate the presence of a benign tumor in breast tissue and in the gastrointestinal tract, and (ii) analysis of an IR spectrum of a blood plasma sample to indicate the presence of a benign tumor. On October 31, 2017, this application issued as US Patent 9,804,145. This patent is expected to expire on November 14, 2033.|
|(10)||US Patent Application 15/785,801. This application is a continuation application of US 14/894,128. This has claims for a method (process), a system, and for a computer program product and is expected to expire on November 14, 2033. The claims in this application are generally directed to (i) analysis of an IR spectrum of a PBMC sample, and a blood plasma sample to indicate the presence of a benign tumor in ovarian tissue, and (ii) preparation of a sample for analyzing by infrared spectroscopy.|
|(11)||European Patent Application No. 13885931.9. This has claims for a method (process), and is expected to expire on November 14, 2033. The claims in this application are generally directed to indicating the presence of a benign tumor in breast tissue based on analysis of an IR spectrum of a PBMC sample.|
There are no patents or patent applications which are licensed to the Company pursuant to the Company’s License agreement with BGU and Mor Research Applications Ltd. (a wholly owned subsidiary of Clalit Medical Services - Israel) referenced below. There are no patents or patent applications which are licensed to the Company from any other entity.
To the knowledge of the Company’s management, there are no contested proceedings or third-party claims over any of our patent applications. Our success depends upon our ability to protect our technologies through intellectual property agreements including patents, trademarks, know-how, and confidentiality agreements. However, there can be no assurance that the above-mentioned patent applications will be approved by the appropriate agencies.
All of the technology for which the patents are sought is owned by the Company. The patents are entirely owned by the Company.
In April 2010, we entered into a research and license agreement with BG Negev and Mor Research Applications Ltd. (a wholly owned subsidiary of Clalit Medical Services - Israel), or together with BG Negev, the Licensor. The Licensor, pursuant to the agreement, granted us an exclusive, worldwide, license to commercialize certain intellectual property covered by the agreement (i.e. research, development, manufacturing, marketing, distribution, and sale of any product containing the licensable IP under the agreement).
Pursuant to the agreement, we are under an obligation to pay to the Licensor a minimum annual royalty of $10,000 in 2015, $25,000 in 2016 and, from 2017 through the termination of the agreement, $50,000 per year. We have not paid any royalties yet under the Agreement. In March 2017, we agreed with the Licensor that the $85,000 we currently owe the Licensor will be paid by us by the earlier of (a) August 2017, or (b) our sale of equity securities to investors with gross proceeds to the Company of at least $10,000,000. We are not currently in compliance with the repayment terms of the license agreement with our Licensor. As such, we are currently negotiating an amendment to the license agreement which would allow us to pay the accrued but unpaid payments due thereunder at a later date. Once there are sales of products or sublicensing receipts based on the licensed intellectual property, we are under an obligation to pay the Licensor a certain percentage of such sales or sublicensing receipts, as running royalties, but in any event not less than the minimum annual royalties. Any minimum annual royalties will be credited against the running royalties in any given year.
According to the license agreement, the royalty rates are as follows:
|On net sales of:|
|○||leukemia related products||3.0||%|
|○||in certain limited circumstances, rates may be reduced to||2.0||%|
|On fixed sublicense income (with no sub license income on sales by sub licensee):|
|○||leukemia related products||20.0||%|
|On fixed sublicense income (with Company income on sales by the sub licensee. These rates are in addition to the net sales rates listed above.):|
|○||leukemia related products||10.0||%|
The minimum royalties will be paid to the Licensor regardless of whether we are able to generate sales from the products arising from the usage of the license.
The license agreement is for an unlimited term, unless terminated earlier by either of the parties under certain circumstances as described in the agreement, including termination as a result of a material breach or a failure to comply with a material term by the other party, as a result of liquidation or insolvency of the other party. In addition, we were entitled to terminate the agreement if at any time, during the period of 7 years following the effective date of the transaction, we, at our sole discretion, would determine that commercialization of the leukemia licensed products is not commercially viable.
Dr. Udi Zelig, our Chief Technical Officer, is one of the inventors of the know-how licensed under the agreement and is entitled to receive from BG Negev between 10% to 15% of all payments that BG Negev is entitled to receive from us under the license agreement.
Our Advisory Board consists of a number of leading scientists and physicians who play an active role in the evaluation of our technology and the development of our pipeline and we seek advice from them on various scientific matters. In addition, we seek advice from our Advisory Board on scientific and medical matters generally. The following table sets forth information for our Advisory Board members.
|Name||Position / Institutional Affiliation|
|Michael C. Little, PhD||Dr. Little was senior vice president of research and development for Natera and president of Futura Partners, a healthcare advisory firm. At Futura, he advises clients from the pharma, life sciences and diagnostics industries in areas including diagnostics, companion diagnostics, and technical leadership development. He is a member of the board of directors of a Cambridge, MA private startup company focused on personalized medicine (pulmonology), and has been a consultant to the investors and board of directors of another personalized medicine company (breast cancer).|
|Previously, he was vice president at Novartis. For the first two years, he oversaw research and development, medical affairs, and regulatory affairs for Novartis (Chiron) Diagnostics in Emeryville, CA. Over a period of five years he had responsibility, as a founding member of a Novartis Diagnostics Development organization, for nearly 30 programs spanning Novartis’ entire oncology and general medicine portfolio.|
|Name||Position / Institutional Affiliation|
|Prior to Novartis, he was the chief operating officer of Adlyfe, a venture-funded company focused on misfolded protein diagnostics. During this time he had accountability for both finance raising and research and development programs.|
|Dr. Little spent 16 years with Becton Dickinson, or BD, where he began as a research and development scientist developing a proprietary nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Displacement Amplification, or SDA, and would ultimately run the business resulting from this initial research work. He assumed responsibility for and ran the research and development programs for BD’s flagship SDA platforms, the BDProbeTecET and BDViper. After BD gained FDA clearance for the first real-time DNA amplification system, he assumed the leadership of the resulting molecular business. This business grew from $0 to $100 million in revenue within five years and has since achieved an aggregate of over $1 billion in revenue.|
|Dr. Little received his PhD in Microbiology from the University of Florida and completed post-doctoral training at the University of Arizona in Tucson.|
|Dr. Jürgen Schmitt||Dr. Jürgen Schmitt has more than 25 years of experience in research and development projects of microbiological and biomedical applications of FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. He has worked in both government and industry to apply FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic techniques in Biotechnology, Medicine and Pharmaceutical Research. For example, in the development of a TSE/BSE antemortem Diagnostic Test on Serum by FT-IR Spectroscopy (Co-Inventor with Robert-Koch-Institute, Berlin), licensed to Roche Diagnostics; and development of a FT-IR Detection Technique for Rapid Mode-of-Action Detection in Antibacterial Drug Research.|
|Dr. Schmitt has published more than 70 reviewed research papers in this field and holds several patents. Together with Prof. Dieter Naumann, he founded a scientific workshop about FTIR spectroscopy in biomedical research at the RKI in Berlin. He is also cofounder of the SPEC conference series, which recently formed the structural basis for the ClirSpec society, a society dedicated to clinical spectroscopy, where he is in the society council.|
|Dr. Schmitt started his spectroscopic expertise 1991 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with Prof. D.C. White and continued at the University of Stuttgart and at the IWW institute of the University of Duisburg before he founded Synthon analytics in 2000, where he currently serves as chief executive officer.|
|Walter Carney, PHD||Dr. Carney received his PhD in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases from Thomas Jefferson Medical School in Philadelphia, PA in 1978. Over the past two years, Dr. Carney has founded and been the chief executive officer of Walt Carney Biomarkers Consulting. Prior to establishing his own consulting firm, Dr. Carney had a distinguished career at Oncogene Science. Dr. Carney was employed at Oncogene for over 23 years in a variety of positions. These positions include chief scientific officer, executive vice president and president. Dr. Carney serves on the advisory board of Sigmet Laboratories and Vermillion. Dr. Carney has also garnered many awards including the Forever Fellowship, NIH Fellow and the Otto Bayer Science award. Dr. Carney is a respected member of the American Association for Cancer Research, the American Society for Clinical Oncology, the American Association for the Advancement of Clinical Science as well as the American Association for Clinical Chemistry.|
Current prevailing cancer detection tests utilize the standard procedures which, we believe, are typically uncomfortable, such as colonoscopy for colorectal cancer and mammography for breast cancer. In addition, we believe, these tests generally have medium to low sensitivities/specificity, along with adverse risks. Furthermore, many of the existing detection methods depend on the technician’s or the physician’s capabilities, knowledge and interpretation. The existing detection methods also carry a high cost.
In light of these drawbacks, our assays will be a part of standard clinical protocol for cancer screening and not a replacement of any of these gold standard procedures. Our aim is to improve the screening process, reducing false negatives and increasing sensitivity thus, saving lives, pain and expenses.
Many of our anticipated competitors, such as those listed in the below figure, have substantially greater financial, technical, and other resources and larger, more established marketing, sales and distribution systems than we have. Many of our competitors also offer broad product lines outside of the diagnostic testing market and have brand recognition. Moreover, our competitors may make rapid technological developments that may result in our intended technologies and products becoming obsolete before we are able to enter the market, recover the expenses incurred to develop them or generate significant revenue. Our success will depend, in part, on our ability to develop our intended products in a timely manner, keep our future products current with advancing technologies, achieve market acceptance of our future products, gain name recognition and a positive reputation in the healthcare industry, and establish successful marketing, sales and distribution efforts.
|Exact Sciences||EXAS||Marketing Cologuard stool based detection test for the detection of colorectal cancer|
|Volition Rx||VNRX||Developing blood-based diagnostic tests for colorectal, lung, prostate, ovarian and other cancer types based on nucleosomics|
|Epigenomics||EPGNF||Engages in developing and commercializing in vitro diagnostic tests for the detection and diagnosis of cancer (EpiproColon - methylated Septin9 DNA in human plasma)|
|Cancer Genetics||CGIX||Focuses on developing and commercializing proprietary genomic tests to improve and personalize the diagnosis and response to treatment of cancer.|
Research and Development
For information regarding our clinical studies, please see above under the caption “New Clinical Studies in Process.”
For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, we incurred $720,527, $317,907 and $374,023, respectively, of net research and development expense.
Our research and development efforts are financed in part through grants received from the IIA. As of December 31, 2017, we have received the aggregate amount of $272,000 from the IIA. Aside from payment of royalties to the IIA, we are required to comply with the requirements of the Research Law. Under the Research Law, royalties of 3% to 3.5% on the revenues derived from sales of products or services developed in whole or in part using these IIA grants are payable to the Israeli government. We developed our technologies, at least in part, with funds from these grants, and accordingly we would be obligated to pay these royalties on sales of any of our product candidates that achieve regulatory approval. The maximum aggregate royalties paid generally cannot exceed 100% of the grants made to us, plus annual interest equal to the 12-month LIBOR applicable to dollar deposits, as published on the first business day of each calendar year.
Production and Manufacturing
We are revising our production line for kits for laboratories and physicians. All of our product production is conducted under ISO 13485 and by conforming to CE instructions, we aim to reduce risks and be more prepared for commercialization of our assays.
We currently have several third-party suppliers, from various geographic locations, that provide us with raw materials. While we are currently relying on these suppliers, we plan to locate other suppliers upon strict inspection. We plan to have a minimum of two suppliers for each component in our system and it is our intention to eventually produce the raw material internally. However, because we are in a highly specialized industry, there can be no assurance that we will be able to achieve that.
Listed below are our current material suppliers. There is no assurance that they will be able to continue supply of our raw materials or that, if necessary, we will be able find replacement vendors on a timely basis on favorable terms.
List of the raw material suppliers for kits
|BD||PUSH BUTTON SET 21G GREEN|
|BD||Vacutainer® K2EDTA 6 mL Blood collection tube|
|Eppendorf||Pipette tips 100-1000 ?l|
|Eppendorf||Pipette tips 0.1-10 ?l|
|Eppendorf||Centrifuge tube 50 ml|
|Eppendorf||Eppendorf tubes 1.5 ml|
|Grenier||Freezing vials 2.0 ml|
|Grenier||Leucosep® 50 ml tube|
Suppliers for our cancer detection kits
|Manufacturer Name||Supplier Name||Service Description / Component Description|
|Todos Medical Ltd.||Todos Medical Ltd.||TM-B1|
|Todos Medical Ltd.||Todos Medical Ltd.||TM-B2|
Sales and Marketing
We currently do not sell our products. Our goal is to have a diversified pool of customers worldwide, including the United States. However, we plan to focus initially on the Western EU nations, Singapore and Israel since we have the CE mark, whereas entering the U.S. market will require more time, effort and substantial funding in order to obtain FDA approval. Assuming we successfully raise additional funding, over the next 12 months we plan to commence clinical trials in Israel and Singapore in order to complete the trials and validation stages prior to commencement of sales. Furthermore, once the clinical trials tests are successfully completed in Singapore, we plan to apply to obtain regulatory approvals in Singapore to sell our products there. Our plans depend on us financing our operations through the sale of equity, incurring debt, or other financing alternatives.
C. Organizational Structure
We currently have one wholly owned subsidiary: Todos Medical Singapore Pte. Ltd., which is incorporated in Singapore.
D. Property, Plant and Equipment
We do not own any real property. Our offices, research and development facility and in-house laboratory are located at our headquarters at 1 Hamada Street, Rehovot, Israel, where we currently occupy approximately 108 square meters for a monthly consideration of NIS 7,000 (approximately $1,820), under a two-year lease agreement that expires on November 30, 2018. Lease payments are linked to the Israeli Consumer Price Index, or CPI, based on the CPI published on February 15, 2015.
We consider our current office space sufficient to meet our anticipated needs for the foreseeable future and is suitable for the conduct of our business.
DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F. This discussion and other parts of this annual report on Form 20-F contain forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results and the timing of selected events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of several factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this annual report in Form 20-F. We report financial information under US GAAP and our financial statements were prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States. Unless otherwise indicated, U.S. dollar convenience translations of NIS amounts presented in this annual report on Form 20-F for the period ended on December 31, 2017 are translated using the rate of NIS 3.467 to $1.00, the exchange rate reported by the Bank of Israel on December 31, 2017, and U.S. dollar convenience translations of NIS amounts presented in this annual report on Form 20-F for the period ended December 31, 2016 are translated using the rate of NIS 3.845 to $1.00, the exchange rate reported by the Bank of Israel on December 31, 2016, and U.S. dollar convenience translations of NIS amounts presented in this annual report on Form 20-F for the period ended on December 31, 2015 are translated using the rate of NIS 3.902 to $1.00, the exchange rate reported by the Bank of Israel on December 31, 2015.
We are an IVD for cancer diagnosis company, engaged in the development of a series of patient-friendly blood tests for the detection of a variety of cancers based on our TBIA, a proprietary method for detection of solid tumors using peripheral blood analysis. The method incorporates biochemistry, physics and signal processing. The TBIA detection method is based on the cancer’s influence on the immune system which triggers biochemical changes in PBMC, and plasma. Our core technology, TBIA, is based on research conducted and technology invented by the research teams at BGU and Soroka, whose intellectual property has been licensed to us in consideration of our contractual obligation to pay certain licensing fees. On December 9, 2013, our TBIA test obtained the CE mark approval.
We believe that our clinical results conducted to date demonstrate the capability to simply and rapidly detect malignant breast and colon tumors in comparison to a controlled healthy group. We anticipate that future broad clinical studies should reveal the full potential of our technology. We believe our proprietary innovation is conducive to constant improvement in the algorithm as we ascend the learning curve, thereby perfecting our test performances and expand the intended population with each test. Accordingly, we will be required to continue to devote substantial resources and efforts to research and development activities in order to potentially achieve and maintain a competitive position in this field. We plan to increase our products portfolio and improve the existing products by improving the algorithms and optimizing and automating the process. As of May 10, 2018, our unaudited cash holdings were $305,000.
One of our objectives in the next two years is to make our products known in the medical and scientific fields by publishing peer reviewed, high impact articles in medical journals about our TBIA test. During this period, we plan to begin selling our products in Israel, Europe and the Far East and to prepare the groundwork for FDA approval in the United States. We will also focus on enhancing our TBIA proprietary automation and algorithms in order to obtain a higher level of accuracy and reproductability for the results of the blood tests. In addition, we believe that automating the process will reduce the relevant costs for the general public. We believe that proper robots and optimized spectrometers will enhance our method to the higher productivity levels needed for the TBIA detection tool to be able to perform a higher volume of tests. Our goal is to perform about 25,000 tests in 2019.
Prior to selling our products, we first need to complete the automation process. This process includes several steps including qualifying a robust new test protocol, making our test measurement more automated in order to reduce our dependency on the skills of lab technicians, installing the proper web cloud data warehouse, and integrating a full business to business network. We plan to protect the confidentiality of patient medical data and personally identifiable information by means of: (i) having a secure facility where the data and information we hold will be stored; and (ii) requiring our third-party providers of data storage to comply with HIPAA and applicable state privacy and security laws and regulations. These changes will enable our customers to run the tests with lower costs while obtaining faster results. To the knowledge of our management, these changes will not impact the previously obtained CE mark approval of the TBIA test. At this point there can be no assurance that our plan will be implemented in accordance with what we currently envision and future clinical results may lead to different conclusions about our products.
We are an IVD company, developing proprietary technology which will analyze a blood test to detect the presence of various cancers. As we are not developing a drug, we believe that we will not need to submit an investigational new drug application to the FDA prior to conducting clinical trials in the U.S. We believe that we will only need IRB approval prior to conducting clinical trials in the U.S.
A. Operating Expenses
Our current operating expenses consist of two components - research and development expenses, and general and administrative expenses.
Research and Development Expenses
Our research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries and related personnel expenses, subcontracted work and consulting, liabilities for royalties and other related research and development expenses.
The following table discloses the breakdown of research and development expenses:
|Year ended December 31|
|Salaries and related expenses||$||144,250||$||136,578||$||166,849|
|Laboratory and materials||184,073||124,748||50,858|
|Liability for minimum royalties expenses||238,000||50,000||35,000|
|Insurance and other expenses||6,148||3,293||4,351|
|Less: Grants from the OCS and others||-||(166,046||)||-|
We expect that our research and development expenses will materially increase as we plan to rapidly recruit more employees in order to accelerate our research and development efforts.
General and administrative
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries, share-based compensation expense, professional service fees (for accounting, legal, bookkeeping, intellectual property and facilities), directors fee and insurance and other general and administrative expenses.
The following table discloses the breakdown of general and administrative expenses:
|Year ended December 31|
|Salaries and related expenses||$||67,884||$||45,717||$||12,328|
|Rent and maintenance||14,735||9,764||10,203|
|Communication and investor relations||9,549||9,622||16,945|
|Insurance and other expenses||25,810||5,144||4,448|
Comparison of the year ended December 31, 2017 to the year ended December 31, 2016
Results of Operations
Research and Development Expenses. Our net research and development expenses for the year ended December 31, 2017 were $720,527, compared to $317,907 for the year ended December 31, 2016, representing a net increase of $402,620, or 126%. The increase is primarily due to research and development grants we have received from the IIA and Horizon 2020 (the EU Framework Program for Research and Innovation) of $166,000 in 2016 that are included as an offset to research and development expenses in 2016, and royalties expenses to BGU.
General and Administrative Expenses. Our expenses for the year ended December 31, 2017 were $617,087, compared to $410,982 for the year ended December 31, 2016, providing an increase of $206,105 or 50.1%. The increase is primarily due to the increase from professional services expenses.
Finance Income and Expenses. Our net finance expenses for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $1,337,758, compared to income of $75,428 for the year ended December 31, 2016, providing an increase of $1,413,186. The increase is primarily due to the change in the fair value of warrants liability in the amount of $1,101,229 and inducement related to warrants exercised in the amount of 166,500. We issued warrants that are classified as liability instruments. As such, the fair value of these warrants is re-measured at the end of each accounting period with changes in this fair value reflected in the financial statement caption “Long Term Liabilities.” The exchange rate differentials affected the balances appearing on the balance sheet.
Net Loss. Our net loss for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $2,675,375, compared to $653,461 for the year ended December 31, 2016, providing a $2,021,914 increase in the amount of the loss or a 300% increase. The increase is primarily due to the change in the fair value of warrants liability, inducement related to warrants exercised and research and development expenses.
Comparison of the year ended December 31, 2016 to the year ended December 31, 2015
Research and Development Expenses. Our net research and development expenses for the year ended December 31, 2016 were $317,907, compared to $374,023 for the year ended December 31, 2015, representing a net decrease of $56,116, or 15%. The decrease is primarily due to research and development grants we received from the IIA and Horizon 2020 (the EU Framework Program for Research and Innovation) in 2015 that are included as an offset to research and development expenses in 2015, partially offset by increases in our continuous plan of research and development and stock-based compensation expenses.
General and Administrative Expenses. Our expenses for the year ended December 31, 2016 were $410,982, compared to $456,957 for the year ended December 31, 2015, reflecting a decrease of $45,975 or 10%. The decrease is primarily due to the decrease in stock-based compensation expense to employees and consultant and professional fees partially offset by an increase in salaries and related expenses.
Finance Income and Expenses. Our finance income for the year ended December 31, 2016 was $75,428, compared to finance income of $12,439 for the year ended December 31, 2015, representing an increase of $62,989. The increase is primarily due to the change in the fair value of warrant liabilities. We have issued warrants that are classified as liability instruments. As such, the fair value of these warrants is re-measured at the end of each accounting period with changes in this fair value reflected in the financial statement caption “Long Term Liabilities.” The exchange rate differentials impacted the balances appearing on the balance sheet.
Net Loss. Our net loss for the year ended December 31, 2016 was $653,461, compared to $818,541 for the year ended December 31, 2015, reflecting a $165,080 decrease in the amount of the loss or a 20% decrease.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimate
We describe our significant accounting policies more fully in Note 2 to our financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017, included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F. We believe that the accounting policies below are critical in order to fully understand and evaluate our financial condition and results of operations.
We prepare our financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or U.S. GAAP. At the time of the preparation of the financial statements, our management is required to use estimates, evaluations, and assumptions which affect the application of the accounting policy and the amounts reported for assets, obligations, income, and expenses. Any estimates and assumptions are continually reviewed. The changes to the accounting estimates are credited during the period in which the change to the estimate is made.
Subject to certain conditions set forth in the JOBS Act, as an “emerging growth company,” we elected to rely on other exemptions, including without limitation, (i) providing an auditor’s attestation report on our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and (ii) complying with any requirement that may be adopted by the PCAOB regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements (auditor discussion and analysis). These exemptions will apply until on or before the last day of the 2021 fiscal year (the fifth anniversary of the date of the first sale of our common equity securities pursuant to an effective registration statement under the Securities Act).
Going Concern Uncertainty
We devoted substantially all of our efforts to research and development and raising capital, and have not yet generated any revenues. The development and commercialization of our products are expected to require substantial further expenditures. We have not yet generated any revenues from operations, and therefore we are dependent upon external sources for financing our operations. Since inception, we have incurred substantial accumulated losses and negative operating cash flow and have a significant shareholders’ deficit. These factors raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty. As of May 10, 2018, our unaudited cash holdings were $305,000. We plan to finance our operations through the sale of equity and, to the extent available, short term and long term loans. There can be no assurance that we will succeed in obtaining the necessary financing to continue our operations. See also Item 3.D - Risk Factors under the caption “The report of our independent registered public accounting firm expresses substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.”
B. Liquidity and Capital Resources
To date, we have funded our operations primarily with shareholder loans, grants from the IIA, and issuing Ordinary Shares and warrants.
The table below presents our cash flows:
STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
|U.S. dollars in thousands||For the Year ended December 31,|
|Cash flows from operating activities:|
|Loss for the year||$||(2,675||)||$||(653||)||$||(819||)|
|Adjustments to reconcile loss for the year to net cash used in operating activities:|
|Liability for minimum royalties||238||50||35|
|Change in fair value of warrants liability||1,101||(118||)||(35||)|
|Financing expenses of long term loans & other Shekel denominated balances||167||8||(8||)|
|Changes in operating assets and liabilities:|
|Decrease (increase) in other current assets||1||6||37|
|Increase (decrease) in accounts payable||(22||)||14||(8||)|
|(Decrease) increase in other current liabilities||81||(8||)||(48||)|
|Net cash used in operating activities||(904||)||(469||)||(615||)|
|Cash flows from investing activities|
|Purchase of property and equipment||(4||)||(35||)||(118||)|
|Net cash used in investing activities||(14||)||(35||)||(118||)|
|Cash flows from financing activities|
|Proceeds allocated to Ordinary Shares, net||563||567||660|
|Proceeds allocated to warrants||-||244||169|
|Proceeds allocated from exercise of warrants||599||-||-|
|Proceeds from exercise of stock options||0.226||0.273||-|
|Proceeds on receipts on account of Ordinary Shares||-||-||-|
|Repayments of shareholders loans||-||(24||)|
|Proceeds from shareholders loans||-|
|Net cash provided by financing activities||1,162||788||828|
|Increase in cash and cash equivalents||244||283||95|
|Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of the year||439||156||61|
|Cash and cash equivalents at end of the year||$||683||$||439||$||156|
Net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $904,410, compared to $469,389 in the year ended December 31, 2016 and $614,654 in the year ended December 31, 2015. The decrease in the cash flow used in operating activities in 2016 compared with 2015 is primarily due to grants received from the IIA as detailed above. The increase in the cash flow used in operating activities in 2017 compared to 2016 is primarily due to increase from operating loss.
Net cash used in investing activities for the for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $13,695, compared to net cash used in the year ended December 31, 2016 of $34,971, compared to net cash used in the year ended December 31, 2015 of $117,788. The decrease is primarily due to significant purchases of property and laboratory equipment made in 2016 and not in 2017.
Net cash provided by financing activities for the for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $1,162,230, compared to net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2016 of $787,759, compared to net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2015 of $827,520. This increase is primarily due to a cash received from the exercise of warrants and proceeds from private placement.
The warrants we issued as part of our private placement had an exercise price of $0.50 per share. In April 2017, we offered our existing warrant holders the opportunity, until May 22, 2017, to exercise their warrants at a price per share of $0.40. During May 2017, certain warrants holders exercised warrants for 1,665,000 Ordinary Shares for proceeds to the Company of $666,000. As of May 10, 2018, our unaudited cash holdings were $305,000.
We cannot assure that our cancer detection kits will be commercialized, work as indicated, or that they will receive regulatory approval and that we will earn revenues sufficient to support our operations or that we will ever be profitable. Furthermore, since we have no committed source of financing, we cannot assure that we will be able to raise money as and when we need it to continue our operations. If we cannot raise funds as and when we need them, we may be required to severely curtail, or even to cease, our operations.
We have limited experience with IVD. As such these budget estimates may not be accurate. In addition, the actual work to be performed is not known at this time, other than a broad outline, as is normal with any scientific work. As further work is performed, additional work may become necessary or change in plans or workload may occur. Such changes may have an adverse impact on our estimated budget. Such changes may also have an adverse impact on our projected timeline of drug development
If we are unable to raise additional funds, we will need to do one or more of the following:
|●||delay, scale-back or eliminate some or all of our research and product development programs;|
|●||provide licenses to third parties to develop and commercialize products or technologies that we would otherwise seek to develop and commercialize ourselves;|
|●||seek strategic alliances or business combinations;|
|●||attempt to sell our company;|
|●||cease operations; or|
Any debt financing secured by us in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. We may not be able to secure additional debt or equity financing in a timely manner, or at all, which could require us to scale back our business plan and operations.
The above conditions raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. The financial statements included elsewhere herein were prepared under the assumption that we would continue our operations as a going concern. Our financial statements do not include any adjustments that may result from the outcome of this uncertainty. Without additional funds from debt or equity financing, sales of our intellectual property or technologies, or from a business combination or a similar transaction, we will soon exhaust our resources and will be unable to continue operations. If we cannot continue as a viable entity, our shareholders may lose some or all of their investment in us.
Our management intends to attempt to secure additional required funding primarily through additional equity or debt financings. We may also seek to secure required funding through sales or out-licensing of intellectual property assets, seeking partnerships with other pharmaceutical companies or third parties to co-develop and fund research and development efforts, or similar transactions. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain required funding. If we are unsuccessful in securing funding from any of these sources, we will defer, reduce or eliminate certain planned expenditures in our research protocols. If we do not have sufficient funds to continue operations, we could be required to seek bankruptcy protection or other alternatives that could result in our shareholders losing some or all of their investment in us.
C. Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We currently do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements.
D. Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations
The following table summarizes our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2017:
|Payments due by period|
|Shareholders’ loans (1)||659,526||-||659,526||-||-|
|Royalties to BGU (2)||323,000||135,000||188,000|
(1) Between the years 2011 and 2014, we received loans from two shareholders. The loans are denominated in NIS, mature on December 31, 2019 and bear no interest. The loans are linked to the Israeli CPI as of January 1, 2015. The loans may be repaid by us from time to time according to our cash availability.
(2) This balance was measured based on the future cash payments discounted using an interest rate of 21%, which represents, according to management’s estimate, the applicable rate of risk for us.
(3) This does not include the repayment of approximately $272,000 of grants we received from the IIA and interest thereon, which shall be repaid as royalties upon the commercialization of our products.
The following table sets forth information regarding our executive officers, directors, and our key employees as of May 10, 2018:
|Dr. Herman Weiss||47||Chairman of the Board of Director|
|Rami Zigdon||55||Chief Executive Officer and Director|
|Udi Zelig||39||Chief Technology Officer|
|David Ben Naim||49||Chief Financial Officer|
|Alon Shalev||46||External Director|
|Ronit Even-Zahav Meitin||53||External Director|
Executive Officers, Directors, and Key Employees
Rami Zigdon, Chief Executive Officer and Director
Mr. Rami Zigdon has served as our Chief Executive Officer since our inception in 2010 and also served as a director on our board from May 12, 2011 until June 3, 2015. On May 10, 2016, he was elected again to serve as a director. As of January 2016, Mr. Zigdon has also served as a director on the board of our subsidiary, Todos Singapore. Mr. Zigdon is an experienced business manager of technology-based companies. From 2003 to 2009, Mr. Zigdon served as the Israeli country manager of Renesas Technology, a leading Japanese semiconductors corporation. Prior to his position at Renesas, Mr. Zigdon served as the manager of Hitachi Semiconductors Israel and as the embedded systems group manager at RDT. Mr. Zigdon has held various technical and management positions at Scitex Belgium, NI Medical and Spectronix. Mr. Zigdon graduated with honors from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and holds a B.S in Biology from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from the Ben Gurion University of the Negev and an MBA from the Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh.
Udi Zelig, Chief Technology Officer
Dr. Udi Zelig has served as our full-time Chief Technology Officer since January 1, 2012. Prior to that, Dr. Zeligin served as our non-employee Chief Technology Officer from our inception through November 15, 2009, while concurrently being employed by Crow Technologies 1977, Ltd. Dr. Zelig is a nuclear and biomedical engineer with more than a decade of research experience in conducting and managing of in-vitro and clinical experiments. His main field of research concerns various applications of infrared spectroscopy for blood cancer detection and investigation of chemotherapeutic drug influence on blood cells. Dr. Zelig is the author of numerous scientific publications in leading biophysics and medicinal journals. Dr. Zelig holds a B.S. in Nuclear Engineering, a Master’s of Science and a Ph.D. in bio-medical engineering, all from the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
David Ben Naim, Chief Financial Officer
Mr. David Ben Naim, has served as our Chief Financial Officer since January 2018. Since 2014, Mr. Ben Naim has been the owner and manager of DBN Finance, a company that provides full outsourcing financial services to companies located in Israel. From 2012 until 2014, Mr. Ben Naim served as the chief financial officer of Insuline Medical Inc., which is traded on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, or TASE, under the symbol INSL. Mr. Ben Naim served as the chief financial officer for Crow Technologies 1977, Ltd. (OTCQB - CRWTF) from 2008 until 2011 and for Ilex Medical Limited (TASE) from 2007 until 2008. Other positions held by Mr. Ben Naim include, in connection with his ownership of DBN Finance, chief financial officer since 2016 of Microbot Medical (Nasdaq - MBOT) and Vonetize PLC (TASE - VNTZ). Additionally, Mr. Ben Naim served as the Corporate Controller of Tadiran Telecom Limited from 2003 until 2007. Mr. Ben Naim holds an MBA from Ono Academic College as well as a C.P.A. license from the Ramat Gan College.
Dr. Herman Weiss, Director and Chairman
Dr. Herman Weiss has been a director since June 22, 2017. Dr. Weiss also serves at the present time as the vice president of medical affairs and clinical development at Juniper Pharmaceuticals Inc. in Boston, MA. Dr. Weiss previously served as the Global Medical Director of women’s health and bone health at Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd. in Petah Tikve, Israel. Dr. Weiss has served as a consultant to multiple medical device and pharmaceutical companies, including American medical systems and venture capital firms in New York City, and also founded and served as the chief medical officer of FibroControl, a biotech medical device company in Herzliya, Israel. Dr. Weiss owns multiple patents and is the author of numerous publications in the area of women’s health and gynecology. Dr. Weiss holds an M.B.A. from the George Washington University, Washington DC, an M.D. from the Ohio State University College of Medicine and a B.A. in Philosophy (summa cum laude) from the Ramapo College of New Jersey.
Alon Ostrovitzky, Director
Mr. Alon Ostrovitzky has been a director since December 5, 2013. Since 2008, Mr. Ostrovitzky has acted as the President of Ostrovitzky Holdings Company, a company which has developed a variety of real estate projects in the Czech Republic, Germany, and Israel. As President, Mr. Ostrovitzky supervised sub-contractors and service providers among other things. Mr. Ostrovitzky has also developed and spearheaded renewable energy projects in Greece, planned and oversaw construction of photo-voltaic parks in Greece, and provided management for a medical center (Dialysis and specialists) in the Czech Republic. Mr. Ostrovitzky holds a B.A. in business administration from the Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, where he specialized in finance, and also studied economics at Tel Aviv University.
Alon Shalev, Director
Mr.Alon Shalev has been a director since June 22, 2017. Mr. Shalev led BrainsGate from its inception phase, into its European clinical trials with a highly innovative technological and clinical platform. Subsequently, he led Nicast from initial exploratory work in different fields through a process of application definition, prioritization and selection, and into its First-In-Man clinical trials as well as the CE approval process. Under his direction, Nicast has become the first medical device company to introduce an implantable medical device based on polymer electrospinning. In 2008, Mr. Shalev started generating the core IP upon which Endospan was later founded. Mr. Shalev has been the chief executive officer of Endospan since 2013 and also serves on its board of directors. Mr. Shalev is an inventor of numerous patents in the medical field. Mr. Shalev holds an MS in Solid State Electronics, Physical Electronics (cum laude) and a B.S. in Electrical Engineering both from Tel Aviv University.
Moshe Schlisser, Director
Mr. Moshe Schlisser has been a director since February 27, 2016. Mr. Schlisser currently also serves as a director at SmartGreen Ltd, Tantel Group Ltd and III Pte Ltd. Mr. Schlisser is a General Partner at Shefa Capital Ltd a Growth Venture Fund with a focus on mid to later stage deep technology investments. Mr. Schlisser held managerial positions in various investment firms and has experience with investments, structured finance and mergers and acquisitions. In 2010, Mr. Schlisser co-founded and currently serves as a director of a soup kitchen in Jerusalem that serves to over 50 homeless and underprivileged individuals a hot prepared dinner every night and that delivers weekend food packages to over 250 underprivileged families.
Moshe Abramovitz, Director
Mr. Moshe Abramovitz has been a director since February 27, 2016. Mr. Abramovitz has held managerial positions in various organizations (Israeli companies and charities) including serving as the deputy chief executive officer of A.S. Mehadrin Ltd. Mr. Abramovitz holds a B.A. in business administration, specializing in information systems, from Ono Academic College and an MBA in business administration specializing in business strategy from Ono Academic College. Mr. Abramowitz received training and a certificate to serve as a mediator from Bar Ilan University.
Ronit Even-Zahav Meitin, Director
Ms. Ronit Even-Zahav Meitin has been a director since June 22, 2017. Since 2014, Ms. Even Zahav Meitin has provided financial consulting services to various companies. Previously, Ms. Even Zahav Meitin served as chief financial officer with the Afcon Group (a public company traded on the TASE). Ms. Even-Zahav Meitin also serves as a director and chairperson of the finance committee for Cross Israeli Highway (a governmental company), and as an external director in Tafnit Discount Asset Management (a subsidiary of Israel Discount Bank Limited) and as an independent director in Inter Green Ltd. (a public company traded on the TASE). Until 2012, Ms. Even-Zahav Meitin served, among other positions, as chief financial officer of Paz Industries and Services (Oil) and a director of its subsidiaries. Ms. Even-Zahav Meitin is a certified accountant in Israel and holds a BA in Accounting and Economics from Tel Aviv University and an MBA in Finance from Bar Ilan University.
There are no family relationships between any of our executive officers and our directors.
The following table presents in the aggregate all compensation we paid to all of our directors and executive officers as a group for work during or with respect to the year ended December 31, 2017. The table does not include any amounts we paid to reimburse any of such persons for costs incurred in providing us with services during this period.
All amounts reported in the tables below reflect the cost to our Company, in thousands of U.S. Dollars, for the year ended December 31, 2017. Amounts paid in NIS are translated into U.S. dollars at the rate of NIS 3.6 is equal to $1.00, based on the average representative rate of exchange between the NIS and the U.S. dollar as reported by the Bank of Israel in the year ended December 31, 2017.
|Salary and Related Benefits, including Pension, Retirement and Other Similar Benefits||Share Based Compensation|
|All directors and executive officers as a group, consisting of six persons||$||204,000||$||69,000|
In accordance with the Companies Law, the table below reflects the compensation granted to our three most highly compensated officers during or with respect to the year ended December 31, 2017.
Annual Compensation- in thousands of USD - convenience translation
|Executive Officers||Salary and Related Benefits, including Pension, Retirement and Other Similar Benefits||Share Based Compensation||Total|
|Shlomo Zakai former Chief Financial Officer (1)||$||22||$||-||$||22|
(1) Mr. Zakai’s employment with the Company terminated on December 15, 2017.
Employment Agreements with Executive Officers
We have entered into written employment agreements with each of our executive officers. All of these agreements contain customary provisions regarding noncompetition, confidentiality of information and assignment of inventions. However, the enforceability of the noncompetition provisions may be limited under applicable law. In addition, we have entered into agreements with each executive officer and director, pursuant to which, we have agreed to indemnify each of them up to a certain amount and to the extent that these liabilities are not covered by directors and officers insurance.
For a description of the terms of our options and option plans, see “Item 6.E. Share Ownership” below.
Todos Medical Ltd. 2015 Share Option Plan
The Todos Medical Ltd. 2015 Share Option Plan, or the Option Plan, was adopted by our Board of Directors on November 2015. The Option Plan generally permits the reservation, allocation and issuance of share options to our employees, directors or consultants. As of December 31, 2018, 1,758,315 options to purchase our Ordinary Shares have been granted under the Option Plan and 4,241,685 Ordinary Shares were available for future option grants under the Option Plan. As of May 10, 2018, 184,864 options have been exercised. Unless terminated earlier by our Board of Directors, the Option Plan will terminate ten years from its date of adoption.
Directors’ Service Contracts
Other than with respect to our directors that are also executive officers, we do not have written agreements with any director providing for benefits upon the termination of his employment with our company.
C. Board Practices
According to the Companies Law, the management of our business is vested in our Board of Directors. Our Board of Directors may exercise all powers and may take all actions that are not specifically granted to our shareholders. Our executive officers are responsible for our day-to-day management and have individual responsibilities established by our Board of Directors. Executive officers are appointed by and serve at the discretion of our Board of Directors, subject to any applicable employment agreements we have entered into with the executive officers.
Under the Companies Law, we are not required to have a majority of independent directors. We are required to appoint at least two external directors. According to our Amended Articles, our Board of Directors must consist of at least five and not more than nine directors, including external directors. Currently, our Board of Directors consists of seven directors. Pursuant to our Amended Articles, other than the external directors, for whom special election requirements apply under the Companies Law, our directors are elected at an annual or special general meeting of our shareholders and serve on our Board of Directors until the next annual general meeting at which one or more directors are elected or until they are removed by the majority of our shareholders at an annual or special general meeting of our shareholders or upon the occurrence of certain events, in accordance with the Companies Law and our Amended Articles. In addition, our Amended Articles allow our Board of Directors to appoint directors, other than external directors, to fill vacancies on our Board of Directors to serve until the next annual meeting or special general meeting, or earlier if required by our Amended Articles or applicable law. For additional information concerning external directors, see “-External Directors” below.
Under the Companies Law, our Board of Directors must determine the minimum number of directors who are required to have financial and accounting expertise. Under applicable regulations, a director with financial and accounting expertise is a director who, by reason of his or her education, professional experience and skill, has a high level of proficiency in and understanding of business accounting matters and financial statements. He or she must be able to thoroughly comprehend the financial statements of the listed company and initiate debate regarding the manner in which financial information is presented. In determining the number of directors required to have such expertise, a company’s board of directors must consider, among other things, the type and size of the company and the scope and complexity of its operations. Our Board of Directors has determined that we require at least one director with the requisite financial and accounting expertise.
The term office holder is defined in the Companies Law as a general manager, chief business manager, deputy general manager, vice general manager, executive vice president, vice president, or any other person assuming the responsibilities of any of the foregoing positions, without regard to such person’s title, or a director or any other manager directly subordinate to the general manager.
Under the Companies Law, a public company is required to appoint at least two external directors to serve on its board of directors. External directors must meet stringent standards of independence. As of the date hereof, our external directors are Ms. Ronit Even-Zahav and Mr. Alon Shalev.
The provisions of the Companies Law set forth special approval requirements for the election of external directors. External directors must be elected by a majority vote of the shares present and voting on the matter at a shareholders meeting, provided that either:
|●||such majority includes at least a majority of the shares held by all shareholders who are non-controlling shareholders and shareholders who do not have a personal interest in the election of the external director (other than a personal interest not deriving from a relationship with a controlling shareholder) that are voted at the meeting, excluding abstentions, which we refer to as a disinterested majority; or|
|●||the total number of shares held by shareholders who are non-controlling shareholders and shareholders who do not have a personal interest in the election of the external director (other than a personal interest not derived from a relationship with a controlling shareholder) voted against the election of the external director does not exceed 2% of the aggregate voting rights in the company.|
The term “controlling shareholder” is defined in the Companies Law as a shareholder with the ability to direct the activities of a company, other than by virtue of being an office holder. A shareholder is deemed to be a controlling shareholder if the shareholder holds 50% or more of the voting rights in the company or has the right to appoint 50% or more of the directors of a company or its general manager.
The term “personal interest” is defined in the Companies Law as a person’s or entity’s personal interest in an act or a transaction of a company, (i) including the personal interest of (a) any spouse, sibling, parent, grandparent or descendant of the persons, any descendant, sibling or parent of a spouse of the person and the spouse of any of the foregoing; and (b) an entity in which the person or entity or any of the foregoing relatives of the person serves as a director or the chief executive officer, owns at least 5% of its issued share capital or voting rights or has the right to appoint one or more directors or the chief executive officer, but (ii) excluding a personal interest arising solely from the ownership of shares. In the case of a person voting by proxy, “personal interest” includes the personal interest of the proxy holder or the shareholder granting the proxy (even if the proxy holder has no personal interest in the matter), whether or not the proxy holder has discretion how to vote.
The initial term of an external director is three years. Thereafter, an external director may be reelected by shareholders to serve in that capacity for up to two additional three-year terms, provided that either:
|●||his or her service for each such additional term is recommended by one or more shareholders holding at least 1% of the company’s voting rights and is approved at a shareholders meeting by a disinterested majority, where the total number of shares held by non-controlling, disinterested shareholders voting for such reelection exceeds 2% of the aggregate voting rights in the company, and provided further that the external director is not an affiliated or competing shareholder, as defined in the Companies Law, or a relative of such a shareholder at the time of the appointment, and is not affiliated with such a shareholder at the time of appointment or within the two years preceding the date of appointment; or|
|●||his or her service for each such additional term is recommended by the board of directors and is approved at a shareholders meeting by the same majority required for the initial election of an external director (as described above).|
External directors may be removed only by a special general meeting of shareholders called by the board of directors after the board has determined that circumstances allow such dismissal, at the same special majority of shareholders required for their election or by a court, and in both cases only if the external directors cease to meet the statutory qualifications for their appointment or if they violate their duty of loyalty to our company. In the event of a vacancy created by an external director which causes the company to have fewer than two external directors, the board of directors is required under the Companies Law to call a shareholders meeting as soon as possible to appoint such number of new external directors in order that the company thereafter has two external directors.
Each committee of the board of directors that exercises the powers of the board of directors must include at least one external director, except that the audit committee and the compensation committee must include all external directors then serving on the board of directors. Under the Companies Law, external directors of a company are prohibited from receiving, directly or indirectly, any compensation for their services as external directors other than pursuant to the Companies Law and the regulations promulgated thereunder. Compensation of an external director is determined prior to his or her appointment and may not be changed during any three-year term subject to certain exceptions.
The Companies Law provides that a person is not qualified to serve as an external director if (i) the person is a relative of a controlling shareholder of the company, or (ii) if that person or his or her relative, partner, employer, another person to whom he or she was directly or indirectly subordinate, or any entity under the person’s control, has or had, during the two years preceding the date of appointment as an external director: (a) any affiliation with the company, with any person or entity controlling the company or a relative of such person at the time of appointment, or with any entity controlled by or under common control with the company at the time of appointment or during the two years preceding the appointment; or (b) in the case of a company with no controlling shareholder or a shareholder holding 25% or more of its voting rights, had at the date of appointment as an external director, any affiliation with a person then serving as chairman of the board or chief executive officer, a holder of 5% or more of the issued share capital or voting power in the company or the most senior financial officer.
The term “relative” is defined as a spouse, sibling, parent, grandparent or descendant; spouse’s sibling, parent or descendant; and the spouse of each of the foregoing persons.
The term “affiliation” includes (subject to certain exceptions): an employment relationship; a business or professional relationship even if not maintained on a regular basis (excluding insignificant relationships); control; and service as an office holder, excluding service as a director in a private company prior to the initial public offering of its shares if such director was appointed as a director of the private company in order to serve as an external director following the initial public offering.
In addition, no person may serve as an external director if that person’s positions or professional or other activities create, or may create, a conflict of interest with that person’s responsibilities as a director or otherwise interfere with that person’s ability to serve as a director or if the person is an employee of the Israel Securities Authority or of an Israeli stock exchange. A person may furthermore not continue to serve as an external director if he or she received direct or indirect compensation other than as permitted by the Companies Law and the regulations promulgated thereunder.
Following the termination of an external director’s service on a board of directors, such former external director and his or her spouse and children and other relatives may not be provided a direct or indirect benefit by the company, its controlling shareholder or any entity under its controlling shareholder’s control. This includes engagement as an officer or director of the company or a company controlled by its controlling shareholder or employment by, or provision of services to, any such company for consideration, either directly or indirectly, including through a corporation controlled by such person. This restriction extends for a period of two years with regard to the former external director and his or her spouse or child and for one year with respect to other relatives of the former external director.
If at the time at which an external director is appointed all members of the board of directors who are not controlling shareholders or relatives of controlling shareholders of the company are of the same gender, the external director to be appointed must be of the other gender. A director of one company may not be appointed as an external director of another company if a director of the other company is acting as an external director of the first company at such time.
According to the Companies Law and regulations promulgated under the Companies Law, a person may be appointed as an external director only if he or she has professional qualifications or if he or she has accounting and financial expertise (each, as defined below). At least one of the external directors must be determined by our Board of Directors to have accounting and financial expertise. We have determined that Ms. Ronit Even-Zahav has accounting and financial expertise.
A director with accounting and financial expertise is a director who, due to his or her education, experience and skills, possesses an expertise in, and an understanding of, financial and accounting matters and financial statements, such that he or she is able to understand the financial statements of the company and initiate a discussion about the presentation of financial data. A director is deemed to have professional qualifications if he or she has any of (i) an academic degree in economics, business management, accounting, law or public administration, (ii) an academic degree or has completed another form of higher education in the primary field of business of the company or in a field which is relevant to his/her position in the company, or (iii) at least five years of experience serving in one of the following capacities, or at least five years of cumulative experience serving in two or more of the following capacities: (a) a senior business management position in a company with a significant volume of business; (b) a senior position in the company’s primary field of business; or (c) a senior position in public administration or service. The board of directors is charged with determining whether a director possesses financial and accounting expertise or professional qualifications.
Israeli Companies Law Requirements
Under the Companies Law, a public company is required to appoint an audit committee. The audit committee must be comprised of at least three directors, including all of the external directors, one of whom must serve as chairman of the committee. The audit committee may not include the chairman of the board, a controlling shareholder of the company or a relative of a controlling shareholder, a director employed by or providing services on a regular basis to the company, to a controlling shareholder or to an entity controlled by a controlling shareholder or a director who derives most of his or her income from a controlling shareholder.
In addition, under the Companies Law, the audit committee of a publicly traded company must consist of a majority of unaffiliated directors, within the meaning of the Companies Law. In general, an “unaffiliated director” under the Companies Law is defined as either an external director or a director who meets the following criteria:
|●||the audit committee has determined that he or she meets the qualifications for being appointed as an external director, except for (i) the requirement that the director be an Israeli resident (which does not apply to companies such as ours whose securities have been offered outside of Israel or are listed outside of Israel); and (ii) the requirement for accounting and financial expertise or professional qualifications; and|
|●||he or she has not served as a director of the company for a period exceeding nine consecutive years. For this purpose, a break of less than two years in the service shall not be deemed to interrupt the continuation of the service.|
Audit Committee Role
Our Board of Directors will adopt an audit committee charter that will set forth the responsibilities of the audit committee consistent with the regulations of the SEC, as well as the requirements for audit committees under the Companies Law, including the following:
|●||oversight of our independent registered public accounting firm and recommending the engagement, compensation or termination of engagement of our independent registered public accounting firm to the board of directors or shareholders for their approval, as applicable, in accordance with the requirements of the Companies Law;|
|●||recommending the engagement or termination of the person filling the office of our internal auditor; and;|
|●||recommending the terms of audit and non-audit services provided by the independent registered public accounting firm for pre-approval by the board or shareholders for their approval, as applicable, in accordance with the requirements of the Companies Law.|
Our audit committee provides assistance to our Board of Directors in fulfilling its legal and fiduciary obligations in matters involving our accounting, auditing, financial reporting, internal control and legal compliance functions by pre-approving the services performed by our independent accountants and reviewing their reports regarding our accounting practices and systems of internal control over financial reporting. Our audit committee also oversees the audit efforts of our independent accountants and takes those actions that it deems necessary to satisfy itself that the accountants are independent of management.
Under the Companies Law, our audit committee is responsible for:
|●||determining whether there are deficiencies in the business management practices of our company, including in consultation with our internal auditor or the independent auditor, and making recommendations to the board of directors to improve such practices;|
|●||determining whether to approve certain related party transactions (including transactions in which an office holder has a personal interest) and whether such transaction is extraordinary or material under Companies Law (see “- Approval of Related Party Transactions under Israeli Law”);|
|●||determining whether a competitive process must be implemented for the approval of certain transactions with controlling shareholders or its relative or in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest (whether or not the transaction is an extraordinary transaction), under the supervision of the audit committee or other party determined by the audit committee and in accordance with standards determined by the audit committee, or whether a different process determined by the audit committee should be implemented for the approval of such transactions;|
|●||determining the process for the approval of certain transactions with controlling shareholders or in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest that the audit committee has determined are not extraordinary transactions but are not immaterial transactions;|
|●||where the board approves the working plan of the internal auditor, to examine such working plan before its submission to the board and proposing amendments thereto;|
|●||examining our internal controls and internal auditor’s performance, including whether the internal auditor has sufficient resources and tools to dispose of its responsibilities;|
|●||examining the scope of our auditor’s work and compensation and submitting a recommendation with respect thereto to our Board of Directors or shareholders, depending on which of them is considering the compensation of our auditor; and|
|●||establishing procedures for the handling of employees’ complaints as to the management of our business and the protection to be provided to such employees.|
Our audit committee consists of Ms. Ronit Even-Zahav Meitin, who serves as the chairperson, Mr. Alon Shalev and Mr. Moshe Abramovitz. Our audit committee may not approve any actions requiring its approval (see “- Approval of Related Party Transactions under Israeli Law”), unless at the time of the approval a majority of the committee’s members are present, which majority consists of unaffiliated directors including at least one external director.
Financial Statement Examination Committee
Under the Companies Law, the board of directors of a public company must appoint a financial statement examination committee, which consists of members with accounting and financial expertise or the ability to read and understand financial statements. Our audit committee holds the responsibilities and duties of a financial statement examination committee, as permitted under the relevant regulations promulgated under the Companies Law. From time to time, as necessary and required in order to approve our financial statements, the audit committee will hold separate meetings prior to the scheduled meetings of the board in respect of the financial statements. The function of a financial statement examination committee is to discuss and provide recommendations to the board of directors (including reporting any deficiencies found) with respect to the following issues: (a) estimations and assessments made in connection with the preparation of financial statements; (b) internal controls related to the financial statements; (c) completeness and appropriateness of the disclosure in the financial statements; (d) the accounting policies adopted and the accounting treatment implemented in material matters of the Company; and (e) value evaluation, including the assumptions and assessments on which evaluations are based and the supporting data in the financial statements.
Compensation Committee and Compensation Policy
A public company in Israel is required to have a compensation committee as required by the Companies Law. The compensation committee must be comprised of at least three directors, including all of the external directors, who must constitute a majority of the members of the compensation committee. Each compensation committee member that is not an external director must be a director whose compensation does not exceed an amount that may be paid to an external director under regulations promulgated under the Companies Law. The compensation committee is subject to the same Companies Law restrictions as the audit committee as to who may not be a member of the committee. See “- Audit Committee - Israeli Companies Law Requirements.”
Our compensation committee consists of Ms. Ronit Even-Zahav Meitin, who serves as the chairperson, Mr. Alon Shalev and Mr. Moshe Abramovitz.
Compensation Committee Role
Our Board of Directors will adopt a compensation committee charter. Responsibilities of the compensation committee consistent with the requirements for compensation committees under the Companies Law which includes the following:
|●||recommending to the board of directors for its approval (i) a compensation policy; (ii) whether a compensation policy should continue in effect, if the then-current policy has a term of greater than three years (approval of either a new compensation policy or the continuation of an existing compensation policy must in any case occur every three years); and (iii) periodic updates to the compensation policy. See “- Compensation Policy.” In addition, the compensation committee is required to periodically examine the implementation of the compensation policy;|
|●||the approval of the terms of employment and service of office holders (including determining whether the compensation terms of a candidate for chief executive officer of the company need not be brought to approval of the shareholders); and|
|●||reviewing and approving grants of options and other incentive awards to persons other than office holders to the extent such authority is delegated by our Board of Directors, subject to the limitations on such delegation as provided in the Companies Law.|
Under the Companies Law, the duties of the compensation committee include the recommendation to the company’s board of directors of a policy regarding the terms of engagement of office holders, as such term is defined in the Companies Law, to which we refer to as a compensation policy, and any extensions and updates thereto. The compensation policy must be adopted by the company’s board of directors, after considering the recommendations of the compensation committee, and will need to be brought for approval by the company’s shareholders, which approval requires a Special Approval for Compensation (as defined below under “- Approval of Related Party Transactions under Israeli Law - Disclosure of Personal Interests of an Office Holder”).
Under the Companies Law, we were required to adopt an office holder compensation policy within nine months following our listing on the OTCQB. As of the date hereof, we did not approve the compensation policy and we intend to have our compensation policy approved by our shareholders in the next general meeting.
The compensation policy must serve as the basis for decisions concerning the financial terms of employment or engagement of office holders, including exculpation, insurance, indemnification or any monetary payment or obligation of payment in respect of employment or engagement. The compensation policy must relate to certain factors, including advancement of the company’s objectives, the company’s business plan and its long-term strategy, and creation of appropriate incentives for office holders, and must consider (among other things) the company’s risk management, size and the nature of its operations. The compensation policy must also consider the following additional factors:
|●||the knowledge, skills, expertise and accomplishments of the relevant office holder;|
|●||the office holder’s roles and responsibilities and prior compensation agreements with him or her;|
|●||the relationship between the terms offered and the average compensation of the other employees of the company (including any employees employed through manpower companies);|
|●||the impact of disparities in salary upon work relationships in the company;|
|●||the possibility of reducing variable compensation at the discretion of the board of directors, and the possibility of setting a limit on the exercise value of non-cash variable equity-based compensation; and|
|●||as to severance compensation, the period of employment or service of the office holder, the terms of his or her compensation during such period, the company’s performance during such period, the person’s contribution towards the company’s achievement of its goals and the maximization of its profits, and the circumstances under which the person is leaving the company.|
The compensation policy must also include the following principles:
|●||the link between variable compensation and long-term performance and measurable criteria;|
|●||the relationship between variable and fixed compensation, and the ceiling for the value of variable compensation;|
|●||the conditions under which an office holder would be required to repay compensation paid to him or her if it was later shown that the data upon which such compensation was based was inaccurate and was required to be restated in the company’s financial statements;|
|●||the minimum holding or vesting period for variable, equity-based compensation; and|
|●||maximum limits for severance compensation.|
Under the Companies Law, the board of directors of an Israeli public company must appoint an internal auditor recommended by the audit committee. An internal auditor may not be:
|●||a person (or a relative of a person) who holds more than 5% of the company’s outstanding shares or voting rights;|
|●||a person (or a relative of a person) who has the power to appoint a director or the general manager of the company;|
|●||an office holder, within the meaning of the Companies Law (including a director and the general manager) of the company (or a relative thereof); or|
|●||a member of the company’s independent accounting firm, or anyone on his or her behalf.|
The role of the internal auditor is to examine, among other things, our compliance with applicable law and orderly business procedures. The audit committee is required to oversee the activities and to assess the performance of the internal auditor as well as to review the internal auditor’s work plan.
Our internal auditor is Mr. Adi Yarim.
Approval of Related Party Transactions under Israeli Law
Fiduciary Duties of Office Holders
The Companies Law codifies the fiduciary duties that office holders owe to a company.
An office holder’s fiduciary duties consist of a duty of care and a duty of loyalty. The duty of care requires an office holder to act with the level of care with which a reasonable office holder in the same position would have acted under the same circumstances. The duty of care includes a duty to use reasonable means to obtain:
|●||information on the advisability of a given action brought for his or her approval or performed by virtue of his or her position; and|
|●||all other important information pertaining to any such action.|
The duty of loyalty requires an office holder to act in good faith and in the best interests of the company, and includes, among other things, the duty to:
|●||refrain from any conflict of interest between the performance of his or her duties to the company and his or her other duties or personal affairs;|
|●||refrain from any activity that is competitive with the company;|
|●||refrain from exploiting any business opportunity of the company to receive a personal gain for himself or herself or others; and|
|●||disclose to the company any information or documents relating to the company’s affairs which the office holder received as a result of his or her position as an office holder.|
We may approve an act specified above which would otherwise constitute a breach of the office holder’s duty of loyalty, provided that the office holder acted in good faith, the act or its approval does not harm the company and the office holder discloses his or her personal interest a sufficient amount of time before the date for discussion of approval of such act.
Disclosure of Personal Interests of an Office Holder
The Companies Law requires that an office holder promptly disclose to the company any “personal interest” that he or she may be aware of and all related material information or documents concerning any existing or proposed transaction with the company. An interested office holder’s disclosure must be made promptly and in any event no later than the first meeting of the board of directors at which the transaction is considered. A personal interest includes an interest of any person in an act or transaction of a company, including a personal interest of such person’s relative or of a corporate entity in which such person or a relative of such person holds 5% or more of the outstanding shares or voting rights, is a director or general manager or in which he or she has the right to appoint at least one director or the general manager, but excluding a personal interest arising from one’s ownership of shares in the company. A personal interest includes the personal interest of a person for whom the office holder holds a voting proxy or the personal interest of the office holder with respect to his or her vote on behalf of a person for whom he or she holds a proxy even if such shareholder has no personal interest in the matter. An office holder is not, however, obliged to disclose a personal interest if it derives solely from the personal interest of his or her relative in a transaction that is not considered an extraordinary transaction. Under the Companies Law, an extraordinary transaction is defined as any of the following: a transaction other than in the ordinary course of business; a transaction that is not on market terms; or a transaction that may have a material impact on a company’s profitability, assets or liabilities.
Generally, a person who has a personal interest in a matter which is considered at a meeting of the board of directors or the audit committee may not be present at such a meeting or vote on that matter unless, with respect to an office holder, the chairman of the audit committee or board of directors (as applicable) determines that the office holder should be present in order to present the transaction that is subject to approval. If a majority of the members of the audit committee or the board of directors (as applicable) has a personal interest in the approval of a transaction, then all directors may participate in discussions of the audit committee or the board of directors (as applicable) on such transaction and the voting on approval thereof. If a majority of the members of the board of directors has a personal interest in the approval of a transaction, shareholder approval is also required for such transaction.
Approval of Transactions with Officer Holders
If it is determined that an office holder has a personal interest in a transaction that is not an extraordinary transaction, approval by the board of directors is required for the transaction, unless the company’s articles of association provide for a different method of approval. Further, so long as an office holder has disclosed his or her personal interest in a transaction, the board of directors may approve an act by the office holder that would otherwise be deemed a breach of his or her duty of loyalty, provided that the transaction is in the company’s best interest and the office holder acted in good faith. An extraordinary transaction in which an office holder has a personal interest requires approval first by the company’s audit committee and subsequently by the board of directors.
Disclosure of Personal Interests of Controlling Shareholders and Approval of Certain Transactions
Pursuant to Israeli law, the disclosure requirements regarding personal interests that apply to directors and executive officers also apply to a controlling shareholder of a public company. In the context of a transaction involving a shareholder of the company, a controlling shareholder also includes a shareholder who holds 25% or more of the voting rights in the company if no other shareholder holds more than 50% of the voting rights in the company. For this purpose, the holdings of all shareholders who have a personal interest in the same transaction will be aggregated. Extraordinary transactions with a controlling shareholder or in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest, including a private placement in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest, and the terms of engagement with a controlling shareholder or a relative thereof, directly or indirectly (including through a corporation controlled by a controlling shareholder), for the provision of services to the company and his or her terms of employment or service as an office holder or employment as other than an office holder, require the approval of each of (i) the audit committee or the compensation committee with respect to the terms of service or employment by the company as an office holder, an employee or service provider; (ii) the board of directors; and (iii) the shareholders, in that order. The shareholder approval requires one of the following, which we refer to as a Special Majority:
|●||at least a majority of the shares held by all shareholders who do not have a personal interest in the transaction and who are present and voting on the matter approves the transaction, excluding abstentions; or|
|●||the shares voted against the transaction by shareholders who have no personal interest in the transaction and who are present and voting at the meeting do not exceed 2% of the voting rights in the company.|
Each shareholder voting on the approval of an extraordinary transaction with a controlling shareholder must inform the company prior to voting whether or not he or she has a personal interest in the approval of the transaction, otherwise, the shareholder is not eligible to vote on the proposal and his or her vote will not be counted for purposes of the proposal.
To the extent that any such transaction with a controlling shareholder is for a period of more than three years, approval is required once every three years, unless, with respect to any such extraordinary transactions, the audit committee determines that the duration of the transaction is reasonable given the related circumstances.
The compensation committee and board approval for arrangements regarding the terms of service or employment of a controlling shareholder must be in accordance with the company’s compensation policy. In special circumstances the compensation committee and board of directors may approve a compensation arrangement that is inconsistent with the company’s compensation policy, provided that they have considered the same considerations and matters required for the approval of a compensation policy in accordance with the Companies Law and that shareholder approval was obtained by the Special Majority.
Pursuant to regulations promulgated under the Companies Law, certain transactions with a controlling shareholder or his or her relative, or with directors, relating to terms of service or employment that would otherwise require approval of a company’s shareholders may be exempt from shareholder approval upon certain determinations of the audit committee and board of directors. Under these regulations, a shareholder holding at least 1% of the issued share capital or voting power of the company may require, within 14 days of the publication or announcement of such determinations, that despite such determinations by the audit committee and the board of directors, such transaction will require shareholder approval under the same majority requirements that would otherwise apply to such transactions.
In addition, disclosure of a personal interest in a private placement of a public company (including disclosure of any material fact or document) is required by (i) a shareholder holding 5% or more of the company’s issued and outstanding capital or its voting rights whose holdings will increase as result of the private placement and a shareholder who will hold 5% or more of the company’s issued and outstanding capital or its voting rights as a result of the private placement, if 20% or more of the company’s outstanding share capital prior to the private placement is issued in the private placement and the payment for which is not only in cash or listed securities or the transaction is not on market terms; and (ii) a person or entity that will become a controlling shareholder as a result of the private placement.
Pursuant to the Companies Law, a shareholder has a duty to act in good faith and in a customary manner toward the company and other shareholders and to refrain from abusing his or her power in the company, including, among other things, in voting at a meeting of shareholder with respect to the following matters:
|●||an amendment to the company’s articles of association;|
|●||an increase of the company’s authorized share capital;|
|●||a merger; and|
|●||the approval of related party transactions and acts of office holders that require shareholder approval.|
In addition, a shareholder has a general duty to refrain from discriminating against other shareholders.
Certain shareholders have a duty of fairness toward the company. These shareholders include any controlling shareholder, any shareholder who knows that he or she has the power to determine the outcome of a shareholder vote and any shareholder who has the power to appoint or to prevent the appointment of an office holder of the company or other power towards the company. The Companies Law does not define the substance of the duty of fairness, except to state that the remedies generally available upon a breach of contract will also apply in the event of a breach of the duty to act with fairness.
Exculpation, Insurance and Indemnification of Directors and Officers
Under the Companies Law, a company may not exculpate an office holder from liability for a breach of the duty of loyalty. An Israeli company may exculpate an office holder in advance from liability to the company, in whole or in part, for damages caused to the company as a result of a breach of duty of care, but only if a provision authorizing such exculpation is included in its articles of association. Our Articles include such a provision, to the fullest extent permitted by law. The company may not exculpate in advance a director from liability arising out of a prohibited dividend or other distribution to shareholders.
Under the Companies Law and the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968, or the Israeli Securities Law, a company may indemnify an office holder in respect of the following liabilities and expenses incurred for acts performed by him or her as an office holder, either pursuant to an undertaking made in advance of any such event or following an event, provided its articles of association include a provision authorizing such indemnification:
|●||a financial liability imposed on him or her in favor of another person pursuant to a judgment, including a settlement or arbitrator’s award approved by a court. However, if an undertaking to indemnify an office holder with respect to such liability is provided in advance, then such an undertaking must be limited to events which, in the opinion of the board of directors, can be foreseen based on the company’s activities when the undertaking to indemnify is given, and to an amount or according to criteria determined by the board of directors as reasonable under the circumstances, and such undertaking shall detail the abovementioned foreseen events and amount or criteria;|
|●||reasonable litigation expenses, including attorneys’ fees, incurred by the office holder (1) as a result of an investigation or proceeding instituted against him or her by an authority authorized to conduct such investigation or proceeding, provided that (i) no indictment was filed against such office holder as a result of such investigation or proceeding; and (ii) no financial liability was imposed upon him or her as a substitute for the criminal proceeding as a result of such investigation or proceeding or, if such financial liability was imposed, it was imposed with respect to an offense that does not require proof of criminal intent; and (2) in connection with a monetary sanction;|
|●||reasonable litigation expenses, including attorneys’ fees, incurred by the office holder or imposed by a court in proceedings instituted against him or her by the company, on its behalf, or by a third party, or in connection with criminal proceedings in which the office holder was acquitted, or as a result of a conviction for an offense that does not require proof of criminal intent; and|
|●||expenses, including reasonable litigation expenses and legal fees, incurred by an office holder in relation to an administrative proceeding instituted against such office holder, or certain compensation payments made to an injured party imposed on an office holder by an administrative proceeding, pursuant to certain provisions of the Israeli Securities Law.|
Under the Companies Law and the Israeli Securities Law, a company may insure an office holder against the following liabilities incurred for acts performed by him or her as an office holder if and to the extent provided in the company’s articles of association:
|●||a breach of the duty of loyalty to the company, provided that the office holder acted in good faith and had a reasonable basis to believe that the act would not harm the company;|
|●||a breach of the duty of care to the company or to a third party, to the extent such a breach does not arise out of the negligent conduct of the office holder;|
|●||a financial liability imposed on the office holder in favor of a third party; and|
|●||expenses, including reasonable litigation expenses and legal fees, incurred by an office holder in relation to an administrative proceeding instituted against such office holder or certain compensation payments to an injured party imposed on an office holder by an administrative proceeding, pursuant to certain provisions of the Securities Law.|
Under the Companies Law, a company may not indemnify, exculpate or enter into an insurance contract for office holder liability, for any of the following:
|●||a breach of the duty of loyalty, except for indemnification and insurance for a breach of the duty of loyalty to the company to the extent that the office holder acted in good faith and had a reasonable basis to believe that the act would not prejudice the company;|
|●||a breach of the duty of care committed intentionally or recklessly, excluding a breach arising out of the negligent conduct of the office holder;|
|●||an act or omission committed with intent to derive illegal personal benefit; or|
|●||a fine, monetary sanction or forfeit levied against the office holder.|
Under the Israeli Companies Law, exculpation, indemnification and insurance of office holders in a public company must be approved by the compensation committee and the board of directors and, with respect to the chief executive officer or a director or under certain circumstances, also by the shareholders.
Our Amended Articles permits us to exculpate, indemnify and insure our office holders to the fullest extent permitted under the Companies Law. We have entered into indemnification and exculpation agreements with each of our directors. This indemnification is limited to events determined as foreseeable by our Board of Directors based on our activities, as set forth in the indemnification agreements.
We have obtained directors’ and officers’ liability insurance for the benefit of our office holders and intend to continue to maintain such coverage and pay all premiums thereunder to the fullest extent permitted by the Companies Law, with coverage of $5 million in the aggregate.
Remuneration of Directors
Under the Companies Law, remuneration of directors is subject to the approval of the compensation committee (until recently of the audit committee), thereafter by the board of directors and thereafter by the general meeting of the shareholders. In case the remuneration of the directors is in accordance with regulation applicable to remuneration of the external directors then such remuneration shall be exempt from the approval of the general meeting.
As of December 31, 2017, we had three full-time employees and two part-time employee, all located in Israel.
In addition, we engage specialists and consultants in fields such as optics, physics, medicine, mathematical algorithms, biochemistry, regulatory and patents from time to time as required by our operations. Furthermore, Mr. David Ben Naim, our Chief Financial Officer, is engaged by us as an external consultant.
E. Share Ownership.
The following table lists as of May 10, 2018, the number of our shares beneficially owned by each of our directors, our executive officers and our directors and executive officers as a group. The percentage of beneficial ownership of our Ordinary Shares is based on 70,087,141 Ordinary Shares issued and outstanding as of May 10, 2018.
|Directors and Executive Officers|
Beneficially Held (1)
|David, Ben Nain||0||0||%|
|Ronit Even Zahav||0||0||%|
|(All directors and executive officers as a group – nine persons)||4,454,653||6.1||%|
(1) Beneficial ownership is determined in accordance with the rules of the SEC and generally includes voting or investment power with respect to securities. Ordinary Shares relating to options currently exercisable or exercisable within 60 days of the date of this table are deemed outstanding for computing the percentage of the person holding such securities but are not deemed outstanding for computing the percentage of any other person. Except as indicated by footnote, and subject to community property laws where applicable, the persons named in the table above have sole voting and investment power with respect to all shares shown as beneficially owned by them.
(2) The percentages shown are based on 70,087,141 Ordinary Shares issued and outstanding as of May 10, 2018.
(3) As of May 10, 2018, Mr. Zigdon holds 3,795,334 Ordinary Shares, including 103,428 Ordinary Shares held by ESOP Management & Trust Services Ltd. for the benefit of Mr. Zigdon and including 284,435 options to purchase our Ordinary Shares granted to Mr. Zigdon in January 2016, that have vested but are unexercised by Mr. Zigdon.
(4) Includes 5,775 Ordinary Shares underlying an exercisable warrant. This also includes 193,931 vested Ordinary Shares granted from the employee option pool, out of the 620,581 options granted to Dr. Zelig in January 2016.
Todos Medical Ltd. 2015 Share Option Plan
Our Board of Directors administers the Option Plan, including (i) designating participants in the Option Plan; (ii) determining the terms and provisions of respective option agreements, including the number of shares to be covered by each option, exercisability, transferability, and other terms and conditions of the option; (iii) accelerating the right of an option-holder to exercise any previously granted option; (iv) determining the fair market value of the shares; and (v) interpreting the provisions and supervising the administration of the Option Plan. Our Board of Directors may amend or discontinue the Option Plan at any time, except that generally no amendment may impair the rights of an option-holder without his or her written consent.
Share options granted to Israeli employees under the Option Plan may be granted pursuant to the provisions of Section 102 of the Israeli Income Tax Ordinance. Any options granted pursuant to such provision will be issued to a trustee and be held by the trustee for at least two years from the date of grant of the options, as required under the Israeli tax ordinance.
Upon termination of employment or service for any reason, other than for cause or death or disability, the option-holder may exercise his or her vested options within 90 days of the date of termination. If we terminate an option-holder’s employment or service for cause, all of the employee’s options, whether vested or unvested, expire on the termination date. Upon termination of employment or service due to death or disability, the option-holder or his or her estate may exercise his or her vested options within twelve months from the date of death or disability. An option may not, however, be exercised after the option’s expiration date.
Options are non-transferable except in the event of an option holder’s death.
If we are party to a merger or consolidation, outstanding options and shares acquired under the Option Plan will be subject to the agreement of merger or consolidation, which will provide for one or more of the following: (i) the continuation of such options by us, (ii) the assumption of such options by the surviving corporation or its parent, (iii) the substitution by the surviving corporation or its parent of new options, (iv) the cancellation of the such options in exchange for payment equaling the market value of the shares subject to the option less the exercise price, or (v) full exercisability of the option and full vesting of the shares subject to the option.
In the event of any variation in our share capital, including a share dividend, share split, combination or exchange of shares, recapitalization, or any other like event, the number, class and kind of shares subject to the Option Plan and outstanding options, and the exercise prices of the options, will be appropriately and equitably adjusted so as to maintain the proportionate number of shares without changing the aggregate exercise price of the options.
As of May 10, 2018, 827,443 options under the Option Plan are vested and unexercised.
A. Major Shareholders
The following table sets forth information regarding beneficial ownership of our Ordinary Shares as of May 10, 2018 by each person, or group of affiliated persons, known to us to be the beneficial owner of more than 5% of our outstanding Ordinary Shares.
We are not owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by another corporation or by any foreign government. We are not aware of any arrangement that may, at a subsequent date, result in a change of control of our company.
Except as indicated in footnotes to this table, we believe that the shareholders named in this table have sole voting and investment power with respect to all shares shown to be beneficially owned by them, based on information provided to us by such shareholders. The shareholders listed below do not have any different voting rights from any of our other shareholders.
|Adeline Holding Limited (3)||12,620,976||(4)||18.7||%|
|D.P.H. Investments Ltd. (5)||8,280,000||12.2||%|
|Schlisser, Ephraim (6)||4,161,327||6.2||%|
(1) Beneficial ownership is determined in accordance with the rules of the SEC and generally includes voting or investment power with respect to securities. Ordinary Shares relating to options currently exercisable or exercisable within 60 days of the date of this table are deemed outstanding for computing the percentage of the person holding such securities but are not deemed outstanding for computing the percentage of any other person. Except as indicated by footnote, and subject to community property laws where applicable, the persons named in the table above have sole voting and investment power with respect to all shares shown as beneficially owned by them.
(2) The percentages shown are based on 70,087,141 Ordinary Shares issued and outstanding as of May 10, 2018.
(3) Mr. Yitzhak Ostrovitzky, the father of Board member, Alon Ostrovitzky, has sole voting and sole investment control of these shares.
(4) Including 1,951,490 Ordinary Shares held by Adeline Holding Limited, or Adeline, pursuant to a loan agreement with Mr. Yitzhak Ostrovitzky. See “- Related Party Transactions” below for additional information.
(5) Our management does not consider D.P.H. Investments Ltd., or DPH, despite holding more than 10% of our Ordinary Shares, to be our affiliate because DPH is an entity that has 18 shareholders, none of whom own more than 17% of DPH. Mr. Wasserman is one of the shareholders. Moshe Abramovitz, a member of our Board of Directors since February 27, 2016, is also a shareholder of DPH. At least five shareholders need to agree before any action with regard to these shares can be taken by DPH. Pursuant to this investment, DPH has the right to appoint two members on our Board of Directors. Eliezer Marmarosh and Judith Weingut were appointed to our Board of Directors as DPH’s representatives as of February 27, 2016. Moshe Schlisser and Moshe Abramovitz replaced them as DPH’s representatives on our Board of Directors on that same date. Since March 16, 2017 (the date of approval of the Amended Articles), none of our shareholders maintain rights different from the rights of other shareholders and DPH no longer has the right to appoint two members to our Board of Directors. Messrs. Schlisser and Abramovitz remain Board members.
(6) Mr. Ephraim Schlisser is the father of Moshe Schlisser, a member of our Board of Directors.
(7) Between 2015 and 2017, Mr. Zigdon was issued 3,351,850 preferred shares in accordance with his anti-dilution rights as a holder of preferred shares. On March 16, 2017, all preferred shares were converted into Ordinary Shares. Mr. Zigdon became a member of our Board of Directors on May 10, 2016.
(8) Includes 1,000 shares underlying a warrant which is currently exercisable. Out of 1,241,163 employee option shares that were granted to Mr. Zigdon in January 2016, 103,428 vested options were exercised by Mr. Zigdon and are currently held by ESOP Management & Trust Services Ltd. for the benefit of Mr. Zigdon. As of May 10, 2018, 284,436 (22.9%) of these employee option shares have vested and are unexercised.
Changes in Percentage Ownership by Major Shareholders
For further details, see “Item 7.B. Related Party Transactions.”
Based upon a review of the information provided to us by our transfer agent, as of May 10, 2018, there were a total of 43 holders of record of our shares, of which six record holders who hold 70,087,141 shares, or approximately 10.7% of our outstanding shares, had a registered address in the U.S., twenty-five (25) holders had registered addresses in Israel, and seven holders had registered addresses in Singapore.
B. Related Party Transactions
Although most of the transactions described below occurred prior to the 1 to 10 share split that took place in February 2015 and prior to the second share split by way of an issuance of bonus shares of 1 to 29 that took place in February 2015, the number of shares listed below reflects both forward share splits.
We have entered into written employment agreements with each of our executive officers. All of these agreements contain customary provisions regarding noncompetition, confidentiality of information and assignment of inventions. However, the enforceability of the noncompetition provisions may be limited under applicable law. In addition, we have entered into agreements with each executive officer and director pursuant to which we have agreed to indemnify each of them up to a certain amount and to the extent that these liabilities are not covered by directors and officers insurance. See “Item 6.B. Compensation” for compensation to our directors and officers.
Since our inception we have granted options to purchase our Ordinary Shares to our officers and our directors. Such option agreements may contain acceleration provisions upon certain merger, acquisition, or change of control transactions. We describe our option plans under “Share Ownership.” If the relationship between us and an executive officer or a director is terminated, except for cause (as defined in the various option plan agreements), options that are vested will generally remain exercisable for six months after such termination.
Royalty Payments from BG Negev to our Chief Technology Officer
Dr. Udi Zelig, our Chief Technical Officer, is one of the inventors of the know-how licensed under the agreement, and to the best of our knowledge, is entitled to receive from BG Negev between 10% to 15% of all payments that BG Negev is entitled to receive from us under the license agreement.
Share Transfer from Crow Technologies
On May 2011, Crow Technologies 1977, Ltd. (a company in which Mr. Shmuel Melman, one of our principal shareholders, is one of the controlling shareholders), or Crow, and Mr. Rami Zigdon entered into a share transfer agreement, whereby Mr. Zigdon acquired from Crow 100% of our share capital. Pursuant to the share transfer agreement, Crow was granted the exclusive right to produce our products at a price which will be 50% higher than the fair market value of such production in Israel. We believe that the exclusive right held by Crow is immaterial to the ultimate price for which we will sell our products or the overall cost of producing our products.
Share Purchase Agreement
On October 7, 2014, we entered into a share purchase agreement with DPH and a group of investors (including Mr. Ephraim Schlisser, the father of Mr. Moshe Schlisser, our director, Mr. David Wasserman and Mr. Ben Zion Chasid, our directors from April 28, 2015 until July 15, 2015, or the Wasserman Group), pursuant to which we issued 18,120,000 Ordinary Shares to a trustee for a group of investors, for an aggregate consideration of $150,000. As of December 31, 2014, the group of investors were not entitled to any of these shares. In 2015, the balance of the $150,000 consideration was paid to us and the trustee released the shares to the group of investors. According to the agreement, DPH was accorded the right to appoint two members to our Board of Directors. Mr. Eliezer Marmarosh and Ms. Judith Weingut were appointed as our directors as DPH’s representatives through February 27, 2016. Mr. Moshe Schlisser and Mr. Moshe Abramovitz replaced them as DPH’s representatives to our Board of Directors on that same date. At a general meeting of our shareholders on March 16, 2017, the shareholders adopted the Amended Articles, as a result of which none of our shareholders were given rights distinct from those rights accorded to other shareholders, and DPH no longer possessed the right to appoint two members to our Board of Directors. Messrs. Schlisser and Abramovitz remain Board members.
Pursuant to the share purchase agreement as amended on August 2015, an agreement was entered into by the Wasserman Group with Adeline, Mr. Melman, Mr. Zigdon, and Dr. Zelig, all of whom are our affiliates, and Mr. Yechezkel Machlev, according to which in the event that our registration statement on Form F-1 is declared effective after October 15, 2016, the 18,120,000 Ordinary Shares would have been transferred to those four people and the one entity. Our registration statement on Form F-1 was declared effective in August 2016, and the 18,120,000 Ordinary Shares remain owned by the Wasserman Group.
Iberica Investments LLC Consulting Agreement
On February, 2015, we entered into a consulting agreement with Iberica Investments LLC, or Iberica, and A.S. Iber Israel Ltd., or Iber, in which, Mr. Moshe Schlisser, who serves as our director, and Mr. Ephraim Schlisser (the father of Mr. Moshe Schlisser and a member of the Wasserman Group) hold managerial positions. Pursuant to the agreement, Iberica agreed to provide assistance with our fundraising efforts, in consideration for up to 10% of the total value of the benefit derived by us, and Iberica assigned its rights and obligations to Iber. From January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2018, we have paid Iber and Iberica approximately $281,000, pursuant to this consulting agreement.
Loan from Shareholders
Mr. Shmuel Melman, who served as our director until June 3, 2015 and Mr. Yitzhak Ostrovitzky, the father of our director, Alon Ostrovitzky, granted us loans in order to fund our ongoing operations. As of December 31, 2017, the principal amount of the loans collectively amounted to $659,526. During 2016, we repaid a sum in the aggregate of $23,529, corresponding to loans. The loans are due on December 31, 2019 and bear no interest. The loans are linked to the Israeli CPI as of January 1, 2015. The loans may be prepaid by us from time to time according to our cash availability. These loans have not been memorialized in a written document. Rather, the lenders were present during meetings of our Board of Directors, at which the terms of repayment were approved and agreed upon.
Loan to Shareholder
On September 29, 2015, we granted a 60-day loan of NIS 180,000 (approximately $45,731) to Mr. Yitzhak Ostrovitzky. Mr. Ostrovitzky agreed not to offset this loan against the long-term loans that he has provided to us. As collateral for this loan, Mr. Ostrovitzky transferred 6,162,600 our Ordinary Shares held by Adeline to a trustee, who upon default was to return these shares to us or sell them to a third party, the proceeds of which would repay to us for this short-term loan. The loan was later extended to mature on December 24, 2015. On such maturity date, Mr. Ostrovitzky repaid NIS 123,000 (approximately $31,250) and the trustee returned 4,211,110 Ordinary Shares to Adeline. Pursuant to a separate agreement between Daniel Margalit and Mr. Ostrovitzky, on the maturity date, Mr. Margalit repaid, on behalf of Mr. Ostrovitzky, NIS 57,000 (approximately $14,481) to us and the trustee transferred 1,951,490 Ordinary Shares to Mr. Margalit. On June 5, 2016, Mr. Margalit returned the 1,951,490 shares to Adeline against receipt of NIS 57,000, pursuant to a cancellation of the transfer of shares transaction previously entered into between them.
Share Allocations to Mr. Rami Zigdon
In December 2015 and during 2016, due to our 2015 and 2016 sale of Ordinary Shares pursuant to a private placement memorandum, and on March 2017 Mr. Zigdon was issued 3,351,850 preferred shares in accordance with his anti-dilution rights as a holder of preferred shares. On March 16, 2017, all preferred shares were converted into Ordinary Shares.
Employment Agreement with Dr. Wee Yue Chew
On March 16, 2017, our subsidiary, Todos Singapore entered into an employment agreement with Dr. Wee Yue Chew to serve as the managing director of Todos Singapore. The agreement is effective for a term of three years, unless terminated earlier with six months’ notice, or shorter notice in the event of special circumstances. Under the agreement, Dr. Wee is entitled to an annual performance bonus at the rate of 4% of Todos Singapore’s net profit before tax, if such profit in said year exceeds SGD3,000,000 (approximately $ 2,150,000). Payment of the bonus is to be made within thirty (30) days from the approval of the financial statements. In addition, Dr. Wee received fully vested warrants to purchase 1,000,000 Ordinary Shares, for an exercise price of $0.10 per share. Any warrants unexercised by Dr. Wee have expired on June 16, 2017.
Warrants Granted to Dr. Schmitt
On January 17, 2017, we granted Dr. Schmitt, one of the advisors on our Advisory Board, warrants to purchase 620,521 Ordinary Shares at an exercise price of NIS 0.01 per share. As of May 10, 2018, 387,826 warrants are vested and the remaining warrants vesting at a rate of 25,855 warrants vesting each calendar month. The warrants granted to Dr. Schmitt were issued in consideration of consultancy services provided to us under a consulting agreement dated October 18, 2016. The agreement is for a term of two years, with such term to be automatically extended for further terms of one year each, terminable by either party by a thirty days’ prior written notice, except for earlier termination under certain circumstances as detailed in the agreement.
C. Interests of Experts and Counsel
A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information.
See “Item 18. Financial Statements.”
From time to time, we are involved in various routine legal proceedings incidental to the ordinary course of our business. We do not believe that the outcomes of these legal proceedings have had in the recent past, or will have (with respect to any pending proceedings), significant effects on our financial position or profitability. As of May 14, 2018, we were not a party to any legal proceedings.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our Ordinary Shares and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Payment of cash dividends, if any, in the future will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, operating results, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors our Board of Directors may deem relevant.
Payment of dividends may be subject to Israeli withholding taxes. See “Item 10.E. Taxation,” for additional information.
B. Significant Changes
No significant change, other than as otherwise described in this annual report on Form 20-F, has occurred in our operations since the date of our consolidated financial statements and the date of the filing of this annual report on Form 20-F.
A. Offer and Listing Details
The Ordinary Shares have been quoted on the OTCQB under the symbol “TOMDF” since March 7, 2017. There has not yet been any trading in the Ordinary Shares on the OTCQB. Prior to March 7, 2017, there was no public trading market for the Ordinary Shares.
B. Plan of Distribution
Our Ordinary Shares are quoted on the OTCQB.
D. Selling Shareholders
F. Expenses of the Issue
A. Share Capital
B. Articles of Association
Our registration number with the Israeli Registrar of Companies is 51-443712-8.
Purposes and Objects of the Company
Our purpose is set forth in Section 2 of the Amended Articles and includes engaging in any type of lawful business.
The Powers of the Directors
Our Board of Directors shall direct our policy and shall supervise the performance of our chief executive officer and his actions. Our Board of Directors may exercise all powers that are not required under the Companies Law or under our Amended Articles to be exercised or taken by our shareholders.
Pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law and our amended and restated articles of association, our Board of Directors may exercise all powers and take all actions that are not required under law or under our amended and restated articles of association to be exercised or taken by our shareholders or other corporate bodies, including the power to borrow money for company purposes.
Rights Attached to Shares
Our Ordinary Shares shall confer upon the holders thereof:
|●||equal right to attend and to vote at all of our general meetings, whether regular or special, with each Ordinary Share entitling the holder thereof, which attend the meeting and participate at the voting, either in person or by a proxy or by a written ballot, to one vote;|
|●||equal right to participate in distribution of dividends, if any, whether payable in cash or in bonus shares, in distribution of assets or in any other distribution, on a per share pro rata basis; and|
|●||equal right to participate, upon our dissolution, in the distribution of our assets legally available for distribution, on a per share pro rata basis.|
Election of Directors
Pursuant to our Amended Articles, our directors are elected at an annual general meeting and/or a special meeting of our shareholders and serve on our Board of Directors until the next annual general meeting (except for external directors) or until they resign or until they cease to act as Board members pursuant to the provisions of our amended and restated articles of association or any applicable law, upon the earlier. In addition, our Amended Articles allow our Board of Directors to appoint directors to fill vacancies and/or as an addition to our Board of Directors (subject to the maximum number of directors) to serve until the next annual general meeting or earlier if required by our Amended Articles or applicable law, upon the earlier. External directors are elected for an initial term of three years and may be removed from office pursuant to the terms of the Companies Law. See “Item 6.C. Board Practices - External Directors.”
Annual and Special Meetings
Under the Israeli law, we are required to hold an annual general meeting of our shareholders once every calendar year, at such time and place which shall be determined by our Board of Directors that must be no later than 15 months after the date of the previous annual general meeting. All meetings other than the annual general meeting of shareholders are referred to as special general meetings. Our Board of Directors may call special meetings whenever it sees fit and upon the written request of: (a) any two of our directors or such number of directors equal to one quarter of the directors present at such a meeting; and/or (b) one or more shareholders holding, in the aggregate, 5% of our outstanding voting power.
The Companies Law requires that a notice of any annual or special shareholders meeting be provided at least 21 days prior to the meeting, and if the agenda of the meeting includes the appointment or removal of directors, the approval of transactions with office holders or interested or related parties, or an approval of a merger, notice must be provided at least 35 days prior to the meeting.
As permitted under the Companies Law, the quorum required for our general meetings consists of at least two shareholders present in person, by proxy or written ballot, who hold or represent between them at least 25% of the total outstanding voting rights. If within half an hour of the time appointed for the general meeting a quorum is not present, the general meeting shall stand adjourned the same day of the following week, at the same hour and in the same place, or to such other date, time and place as prescribed in the notice to the shareholders and in such adjourned meeting, if no quorum is present within half an hour of the time arranged, any two shareholders participating in the meeting, shall constitute a quorum.
Adoption of Resolutions
Our Amended Articles provide that all resolutions of our shareholders require a simple majority vote, unless otherwise required under the Companies Law or our Amended Articles. A shareholder may vote in a general meeting in person, by proxy or by a written ballot.
Changing Rights Attached to Shares
Unless otherwise provided by the terms of the shares and subject to any applicable law, in order to change the rights attached to any class of shares, such change must be adopted by the board of directors and at a general meeting of the affected class or by a written consent of all the shareholders of the affected class.
Resolutions regarding the following matters must be passed at a general meeting of our shareholders:
|●||amendments to our Amended Articles;|
|●||the exercise of our Board of Director’s powers if our Board of Directors is unable to exercise its powers|
|●||appointment or termination of our auditors;|
|●||appointment of directors, including external directors;|
|●||approval of acts and transactions requiring general meeting approval pursuant to the provisions of the Companies Law and any other applicable law|
|●||increases or reductions of our authorized share capital; and|
|●||a merger (as such term is defined in the Companies Law).|
The enlargement of an existing class of shares or the issuance of additional shares thereof, shall not be deemed to modify the rights attached to the previously issued shares of such class or of any other class, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the shares.
Limitations on the Right to Own Securities in Our Company
There are no limitations on the right to own our securities.
Provisions Restricting Change in Control of Our Company
There are no specific provisions of our Amended Articles that would have an effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of the Company or that would operate only with respect to a merger, acquisition or corporate restructuring involving us (or our Subsidiary). However, as described below, certain provisions of the Companies Law may have such effect. The Companies Law includes provisions that allow a merger transaction and requires that each company that is a party to the merger have the transaction approved by its board of directors and a vote of the majority of its shares. For purposes of the shareholder vote of each party, unless a court rules otherwise, the merger will not be deemed approved if shares representing a majority of the voting power present at the shareholders meeting and which are not held by the other party to the merger (or by any person who holds 25% or more of the voting power or the right to appoint 25% or more of the directors of the other party) vote against the merger. Upon the request of a creditor of either party to the proposed merger, the court may delay or prevent the merger if it concludes that there exists a reasonable concern that as a result of the merger the surviving company will be unable to satisfy the obligations of any of the parties to the merger. In addition, a merger may not be completed unless at least (1) 50 days have passed from the time that the requisite proposals for approval of the merger were filed with the Israeli Registrar of Companies by each merging company and (2) 30 days have passed since the merger was approved by the shareholders of each merging company.
The Companies Law also provides that an acquisition of shares in a public company must be made by means of a “special” tender offer if as a result of the acquisition (1) the purchaser would become a 25% or greater shareholder of the company, unless there is already another 25% or greater shareholder of the company or (2) the purchaser would become a 45% or greater shareholder of the company, unless there is already a 45% or greater shareholder of the company. These requirements do not apply if, in general, the acquisition (1) was made in a private placement that received shareholder approval, (2) was from a 25% or greater shareholder of the company which resulted in the acquirer becoming a 25% or greater shareholder of the company, or (3) was from a 45% or greater shareholder of the company which resulted in the acquirer becoming a 45% or greater shareholder of the company. A “special” tender offer must be extended to all shareholders, but the offeror is not required to purchase more than 5% of the company’s outstanding shares, regardless of how many shares are tendered by shareholders. In general, the tender offer may be consummated only if (1) at least 5% of the company’s outstanding shares will be acquired by the offeror and (2) the number of shares tendered in the offer exceeds the number of shares whose holders objected to the offer.
If, as a result of an acquisition of shares, the acquirer will hold more than 90% of a company’s outstanding shares, the acquisition must be made by means of a tender offer for all of the outstanding shares. In general, if less than 5% of the outstanding shares are not tendered in the tender offer and more than half of the offerees who have no personal interest in the offer tendered their shares, all the shares that the acquirer offered to purchase will be transferred to it. Shareholders may request appraisal rights in connection with a full tender offer for a period of six months following the consummation of the tender offer, but the acquirer is entitled to stipulate that tendering shareholders will forfeit such appraisal rights.
Lastly, Israeli tax law treats some acquisitions, such as stock-for-stock exchanges between an Israeli company and a foreign company, less favorably than U.S. tax laws. For example, Israeli tax law may, under certain circumstances, subject a shareholder who exchanges his Ordinary Shares for shares in another corporation to taxation prior to the sale of the shares received in such stock-for-stock swap.
Changes in Our Capital
The general meeting may, by a simple majority vote of the shareholders attending the general meeting:
|●||increase our registered share capital by the creation of new shares from the existing class or a new class, as determined by the general meeting;|
|●||cancel any registered share capital which have not been taken or agreed to be taken by any person;|
|●||consolidate and divide all or any of our share capital into shares of larger nominal value than our existing shares;|
|●||subdivide our existing shares or any of them, our share capital or any of it, into shares of smaller nominal value than is fixed;|
|●||reduce our share capital and any fund reserved for capital redemption in any manner, and with and subject to any incident authorized, and consent required, by the Companies Law; and|
|●||reduce shares from our issued and outstanding share capital, in such manner that those shares shall be cancelled and the nominal par value paid for those shares will be registered on our books as capital fund, which shall be deemed as a premium paid on those shares which shall remain in our issued and outstanding share capital.|
Access to Corporate Records
Under the Companies Law, all shareholders of a company generally have the right to review minutes of the company’s general meetings, its shareholders register and principal shareholders register, articles of association, financial statements and any document it is required by law to file publicly with the Israeli Registrar of Companies and the Israeli Securities Authority. Furthermore, any of our shareholders may request access to review any document in our possession that relates to any action or transaction with a related party, interested party or office holder that requires shareholder approval under the Companies Law. However, we may deny such a request to review a document if we determine that the request was not made in good faith, that the document contains a commercial secret or a patent or that the document’s disclosure may otherwise prejudice our interests.
C. Material Contracts
We have not entered into any material contract within the two years prior to the date of this annual report on Form 20- F, other than contracts entered into in the ordinary course of business, or as otherwise described herein in “Item 4.A. History and Development of the Company” above, “Item 4.B. Business Overview” above, or “Item 7.A. Major Shareholders” above.
D. Exchange Controls
There are currently no Israeli currency control restrictions on payments of dividends or other distributions with respect to our Ordinary Shares or the proceeds from the sale of the shares, except for the obligation of Israeli residents to file reports with the Bank of Israel regarding certain transactions. However, legislation remains in effect pursuant to which currency controls can be imposed by administrative action at any time. The ownership or voting of our Ordinary Shares by non-residents of Israel, except with respect to citizens of countries that are in a state of war with Israel, is not restricted in any way by our Amended Articles or by the laws of the State of Israel.
Israeli Tax Considerations and Government Programs
The following is a description of the material Israeli income tax consequences of the ownership of our Ordinary Shares. The following also contains a description of material relevant provisions of the current Israeli income tax structure applicable to companies in Israel, with reference to its effect on us. To the extent that the discussion is based on new tax legislation which has not been subject to judicial or administrative interpretation, there can be no assurance that the tax authorities will accept the views expressed in the discussion in question. The discussion is not intended, and should not be taken, as legal or professional tax advice and is not exhaustive of all possible tax considerations.
The following description is not intended to constitute a complete analysis of all tax consequences relating to the ownership or disposition of our Ordinary Shares. Shareholders should consult their own tax advisors concerning the tax consequences of their particular situation, as well as any tax consequences that may arise under the laws of any state, local, foreign or other taxing jurisdiction.
General Corporate Tax Structure in Israel
Israeli companies are generally subject to corporate tax. As of January 2016, the corporate tax rate was 25%. As of January 1, 2017, the corporate tax rate was reduced to 24% and as of January 1, 2018, the corporate tax rate has been be further reduced to 23%. Capital gains derived by an Israeli company are generally subject to the prevailing corporate tax rate.
Tax Benefits and Grants for Research and Development
Tax Benefits for Research and Development
In general, Israeli tax law allows, under certain conditions, a tax deduction for expenditures for scientific research and development projects, for the year in which they are incurred. Expenditures related to scientific research and development projects, would be reduced by the sum of any funds received through government grants for the finance of such scientific research and development projects. No deduction under these research and development deduction rules is allowed if such expenditure was invested in an asset depreciable under the general depreciation rules of the income Tax Ordinance, 1961. In addition, expenditures for scientific research and development projects not approved as deductions under the rules described above are generally deductible in equal amounts over three years, as of the year in which they were paid. From time to time we may apply to the IIA for approval to allow a tax deduction for all research and development expenses during the year incurred. There can be no assurance that such application will be accepted.
Taxation of our Shareholders
In general, under an Israeli tax law an individual would be subject to capital gain tax rate of 25% or 30% if the is a substantial shareholder as defined below (in 2017 and 2018). In addition, an individual would be subject to an “Additional Tax” of 3% on his income exceeding NIS 640,000 (in 2017) or exceeding NIS 641,880 (in 2018). A corporation would be subject to capital gain at a rate of 24% (in 2017) or 23% (in 2018).
Capital Gains Taxes Applicable to Non-Israeli Resident Shareholders. In general, under Israeli tax law, a non-Israeli resident who derives capital gains from the sale of shares in an Israeli resident company will be exempt from Israeli tax so long as the shares were not held through a permanent establishment that the non-resident maintains in Israel and if additional conditions are met. However, non-Israeli corporations will not be entitled to the foregoing exemption if Israeli residents: (i) have a controlling interest of more than 25% in such non-Israeli corporation, whether directly or indirectly, by themselves or with others or (ii) are the beneficiaries of, or are entitled to, 25% or more of the revenues or profits of such non-Israeli corporation, whether directly or indirectly.
Additionally, a sale of securities by a non-Israeli resident may be exempt from Israeli capital gains tax under the provisions of an applicable tax treaty. For example, under Convention Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the State of Israel with respect to Taxes on Income, as amended, or the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty, the sale, exchange or other disposition of shares by a shareholder who is a U.S. resident (for purposes of the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty) holding the shares as a capital asset, is generally exempt from Israeli capital gains tax if certain conditions are met, unless: (i) the capital gain arising from such sale, exchange or disposition is attributed to real estate located or situated in Israel; (ii) the capital gain arising from such sale, exchange or disposition is attributed to royalties; (iii) the capital gain arising from the such sale, exchange or disposition of business profits as industrial or commercial profits attributed to a permanent establishment of the shareholder in Israel, under certain terms; (iv) such Treaty U.S. Resident holds, directly or indirectly, shares representing 10% or more of the voting capital during any part of the 12-month period preceding the disposition, subject to certain conditions; or (v) such U.S. resident (for purposes of the US-Israel Tax Treaty), holds, directly or indirectly, shares representing 10% or more of the voting capital during any part of the 12-month period preceding the disposition, subject to certain conditions.
In some instances where our shareholders may be liable for Israeli tax on the sale of their Ordinary Shares, the payment of the consideration may be subject to the withholding of Israeli tax at source. Shareholders may be required to demonstrate in advance that they are exempt from tax on their capital gains in order to avoid withholding at source at the time of sale.
Taxation of Non-Israeli Shareholders on Receipt of Dividends. Non-Israeli residents are generally subject to Israeli income tax on the receipt of dividends paid on our Ordinary Shares at the rate of 25% (in 2017 and 2018), which tax will be withheld at source, unless relief is provided in an applicable treaty between Israel and the shareholder’s country of residence. With respect to a person who is a “substantial shareholder” at the time of receiving the dividend or on any time during the preceding twelve months, the applicable tax rate would be 30% (in 2017 and 2018). A “substantial shareholder” is generally defined as a person who alone, or together with his or her relative or another person who collaborates with such person on a regular basis, holds, directly or indirectly, at least 10% of any of the “means of control” of the corporation. “Means of control” generally include the right to vote in a general meeting of the shareholders, the right to receive profits, the right to nominate a director or an executive officer, the right to receive assets upon liquidation, or (after settling the debts) the right to instruct someone who holds any of the aforesaid rights regarding the manner in which he or she is to exercise such right(s), and whether by virtue of shares, rights to shares or other rights, or in any other manner, including by means of voting agreements or trusteeship agreements. In addition, an individual would be subject to an “Additional Tax” of 3% on his income exceeding NIS 640,000 (in 2017) or exceeding NIS 641,880 (in 2018).
U.S. Tax Considerations
The following is a general summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax consequences relating to the purchase, ownership and disposition of our Ordinary Shares by U.S. Holders (as defined below). This summary is based on the Internal Revenue Code, or the Code, the regulations of the U.S. Department of the Treasury issued pursuant to the Code (the “Treasury Regulations”), the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty, and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof, all as in effect on the date hereof and all of which are subject to change, possibly with retroactive effect, or to different interpretation. No ruling has been sought from the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, with respect to any U.S. federal income tax consequences described below, and there can be no assurance that the IRS or a court will not take a contrary position. This summary is no substitute for consultation by prospective investors with their own tax advisors and does not constitute tax advice. This summary does not address all of the tax considerations that may be relevant to specific U.S. Holders in light of their particular circumstances or to U.S. Holders subject to special treatment under U.S. federal income tax law (including, without limitation, banks, insurance companies, tax-exempt entities, retirement plans, regulated investment companies, partnerships, dealers in securities, brokers, real estate investment trusts, certain former citizens or residents of the U.S., persons who acquire our Ordinary Shares as part of a straddle, hedge, conversion transaction or other integrated investment, persons who acquire our Ordinary Shares through the exercise or cancellation of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation for their services, persons that have a “functional currency” other than the U.S. dollar, persons that own (or are deemed to own, indirectly, or by attribution) 10% or more of our shares, or persons that mark their securities to market for U.S. federal income tax purposes). This summary does not address any U.S. state or local or non-U.S. tax considerations, any U.S. federal estate, gift or alternative minimum tax considerations, or any U.S. federal tax consequences other than U.S. federal income tax consequences.
As used in this summary, the term “U.S. Holder” means a beneficial owner of our Ordinary Shares that is, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, (i) an individual citizen or resident of the United States, (ii) a corporation, or other entity taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia, (iii) an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source, or (iv) a trust with respect to which a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over its administration and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all of its substantial decisions, or that has a valid election in effect under applicable Treasury Regulations to be treated as a “United States person.”
If an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our Ordinary Shares, the tax treatment of such entity treated as a partnership and each person treated as a partner thereof generally will depend upon the status and activities of the entity and such person. A holder that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes should consult its own tax advisor regarding the U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to it and its partners of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our Ordinary Shares.
Prospective investors should be aware that this summary does not address the tax consequences to investors who are not U.S. Holders. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors as to the particular tax considerations applicable to them relating to the purchase, ownership and disposition of our Ordinary Shares, including the applicability of U.S. federal, state and local tax laws and non-U.S. tax laws.
Taxation of U.S. Holders
Distributions. Subject to the discussion below under “Passive Foreign Investment Company,” a U.S. Holder, other than certain U.S. Holders that are U.S. corporations, that receives a distribution with respect to an Ordinary Share generally will be required to include the amount of such distribution in gross income as a dividend (without reduction for any Israeli tax withheld from such distribution) when actually or constructively received to the extent of the U.S. Holder’s pro rata share of our current and/or accumulated earnings and profits (as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles). Any distributions in excess of our earnings and profits will be applied against and will reduce (but not below zero) the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in its Ordinary Shares, and, to the extent they exceed that tax basis, will be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of our Ordinary Shares.
For U.S. Holders that are corporations, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the TCJA, passed into law on December 20, 2017, provides a 100% deduction for the foreign-source portion of dividends received from “specified 10-percent owned foreign corporations” by U.S. corporate holders, subject to a one-year holding period. No foreign tax credit, including Israeli withholding tax (or deduction for foreign taxes paid with respect to qualifying dividends) would be permitted for foreign taxes paid or accrued with respect to a qualifying dividend. Deduction would be unavailable for “hybrid dividends.”
As noted above, we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. If we were to pay dividends, we expect to pay such dividends in NIS. A dividend paid in NIS, including the amount of any Israeli taxes withheld, will be includible in a U.S. Holder’s income at a U.S. dollar amount calculated by reference to the exchange rate in effect on the date such dividend is received, regardless of whether the payment is in fact converted into U.S. dollars. If the dividend is converted to U.S. dollars on the date of receipt, a U.S. Holder generally will not recognize a foreign currency gain or loss. However, if the U.S. Holder converts the NIS into U.S. dollars on a later date, the U.S. Holder must include, in computing its income, any gain or loss resulting from any exchange rate fluctuations. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between (i) the U.S. dollar value of the amount included in income when the dividend was received and (ii) the amount received on the conversion of the NIS into U.S. dollars. Such gain or loss generally will be ordinary income or loss and will be U.S. source income or loss for U.S. foreign tax credit purposes. U.S. Holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the tax consequences to them if we pay dividends in NIS or any other non-U.S. currency.
Subject to certain significant conditions and limitations, any Israeli taxes paid on or withheld from distributions from us and not refundable to a U.S. Holder may be credited against the U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability or, alternatively, may be deducted from the U.S. Holder’s taxable income. The election to deduct, rather than credit, foreign taxes, is made on a year-by-year basis and applies to all foreign taxes paid by a U.S. Holder or withheld from a U.S. Holder that year. Dividends paid on the Ordinary Shares generally will constitute income from sources outside the United States and be categorized as “passive category income” or, in the case of some U.S. Holders, as “general category income” for U.S. foreign tax credit purposes. Because the rules governing foreign tax credits are complex, U.S. Holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the availability of foreign tax credits in their particular circumstances.
Dividends paid on the Ordinary Shares will not be eligible for the “dividends-received” deduction generally allowed to corporate U.S. Holders with respect to dividends received from U.S. corporations, unless the U.S. Holder is a corporation that owns 10 percent or more of our Ordinary Shares.
Certain distributions treated as dividends that are received by an individual U.S. Holder from a “qualified foreign corporation” generally qualify for a 20% reduced maximum tax rate so long as certain holding period and other requirements are met. A non-U.S. corporation (other than a corporation that is treated as a passive foreign investment company, or a PFIC, for the taxable year in which the dividend is paid or the preceding taxable year) generally will be considered to be a qualified foreign corporation (i) if it is eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive tax treaty with the United States which the Secretary of Treasury of the United States determines is satisfactory for purposes of this provision and which includes an exchange of information program, or (ii) with respect to any dividend it pays on stock which is readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States. Dividends paid by us in a taxable year in which we are not a PFIC and with respect to which we were not a PFIC in the preceding taxable year are expected to be eligible for the 20% reduced maximum tax rate, although we can offer no assurances in this regard. However, any dividend paid by us in a taxable year in which we are a PFIC or were a PFIC in the preceding taxable year will be subject to tax at regular ordinary income rates (along with any applicable additional PFIC tax liability, as discussed below).
The additional 3.8% “net investment income tax” (described below) may apply to dividends received by certain U.S. Holders who meet certain modified adjusted gross income thresholds.
Sale, Exchange or Other Taxable Disposition of Ordinary Shares. Subject to the discussion under “Passive Foreign Investment Company” below, a U.S. Holder generally will recognize capital gain or loss upon the sale, exchange, or other taxable disposition of our Ordinary Shares in an amount equal to the difference between the amount realized on the sale, exchange, or other taxable disposition and the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis (determined under U.S. federal income tax rules) in such Ordinary Shares. This capital gain or loss will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder’s holding period in our Ordinary Shares exceeds one year. Preferential tax rates for long-term capital gain (currently, with a maximum rate of 20%) will apply to individual U.S. Holders. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations. The gain or loss generally will be income or loss from sources within the United States for U.S. foreign tax credit purposes, subject to certain possible exceptions under the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty. The additional 3.8% “net investment income tax” (described below) may apply to gains recognized upon the sale, exchange, or other taxable disposition of our Ordinary Shares by certain U.S. Holders who meet certain modified adjusted gross income thresholds.
U.S. Holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of receiving currency other than U.S. dollars upon the disposition of their Ordinary Shares.
Passive Foreign Investment Company. In general, a non-U.S. corporation will be treated as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes in any taxable year in which either (i) at least 75% of its gross income is “passive income,” or (ii) on average at least 50% of its assets by value produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income. Passive income for this purpose generally includes, among other things, certain dividends, interest, royalties, rents and gains from commodities and securities transactions and from the sale or exchange of property that gives rise to passive income. Passive income also includes amounts derived by reason of the temporary investment of funds, including those raised in a public offering. Assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income include cash, even if held as working capital or raised in a public offering, marketable securities and other assets that may produce passive income. In determining whether a non-U.S. corporation is a PFIC, a proportionate share of the income and assets of each corporation in which it owns, directly or indirectly, at least a 25% interest (by value) is taken into account.
A foreign corporation’s PFIC status is an annual determination that is based on tests that are factual in nature, and our status for any year will depend on our income, assets, and activities for such year. We have not performed an analysis of our PFIC status for our taxable year ended December 31, 2016. In addition, our actual PFIC status for our current taxable year (2017) or any subsequent taxable year is uncertain and will not be determinable until after the end of such taxable year. Accordingly, there can be no assurance with respect to our status as a PFIC for our taxable year ended December 31, 2016 or any subsequent taxable year.
U.S. Holders should be aware of certain tax consequences of investing directly or indirectly in us due to our classification as a PFIC. A U.S. Holder is subject to different rules depending on whether the U.S. Holder makes an election to treat us as a “qualified electing fund,” or a QEF election, for the first taxable year that the U.S. Holder holds Ordinary Shares, makes a “mark-to-market” election with respect to the Ordinary Shares, or makes neither election. An election to treat us as a QEF will not be available if we do not provide the information necessary to make such an election. It is not expected that a U.S. Holder will be able to make a QEF election because we do not intend to provide U.S. Holders with the information necessary to make a QEF election.
QEF Election. One way in which certain of the adverse consequences of PFIC status can be mitigated is for a U.S. Holder make a QEF election. Generally, a shareholder making the QEF election is required for each taxable year to include in income a pro rata share of the ordinary earnings and net capital gain of the QEF, subject to a separate election to defer payment of taxes, which deferral is subject to an interest charge. An election to treat us as a QEF will not be available if we do not provide the information necessary to make such an election. It is not expected that a U.S. Holder will be able to make a QEF election because we do not intend to provide U.S. Holders with the information necessary to make a QEF election.
Mark-to-Market Election. Alternatively, if our Ordinary Shares are treated as “marketable stock,” a U.S. Holder would be allowed to make a “mark-to-market” election with respect to our Ordinary Shares, provided the U.S. Holder completes and files IRS Form 8621 in accordance with the relevant instructions and related Treasury Regulations. If that election is made, the U.S. Holder generally would include as ordinary income in each taxable year the excess, if any, of the fair market value of our Ordinary Shares at the end of the taxable year over such holder’s adjusted tax basis in such Ordinary Shares. The U.S. Holder would also be permitted an ordinary loss in respect of the excess, if any, of the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in our Ordinary Shares over their fair market value at the end of the taxable year, but only to the extent of the net amount previously included in income as a result of the mark-to- market election. A U.S. Holder’s tax basis in our Ordinary Shares would be adjusted to reflect any such income or loss amount. Gain realized on the sale, exchange or other disposition of our Ordinary Shares would be treated as ordinary income, and any loss realized on the sale, exchange or other disposition of our Ordinary Shares would be treated as ordinary loss to the extent that such loss does not exceed the net mark-to-market gains previously included in income by the U.S. Holder, and any loss in excess of such amount will be treated as capital loss. Amounts treated as ordinary income will not be eligible for the favorable tax rates applicable to qualified dividend income or long-term capital gains.
Generally, stock will be considered marketable stock if it is “regularly traded” on a “qualified exchange” within the meaning of applicable Treasury Regulations. A class of stock is regularly traded on an exchange during any calendar year during which such class of stock is traded, other than in de minimis quantities, on at least 15 days during each calendar quarter. To be marketable stock, our Ordinary Shares must be regularly traded on a qualifying exchange (i) in the United States that is registered with the SEC or a national market system established pursuant to the Exchange Act or (ii) outside the United States that is properly regulated and meets certain trading, listing, financial disclosure and other requirements. Our Ordinary Shares are not currently “marketable stock.”
A mark-to-market election will not apply to our Ordinary Shares held by a U.S. Holder for any taxable year during which we are not a PFIC, but will remain in effect with respect to any subsequent taxable year in which we become a PFIC. Such election will not apply to any PFIC subsidiary that we own. Each U.S. Holder is encouraged to consult its own tax advisor with respect to the availability and tax consequences of a mark-to-market election with respect to our Ordinary Shares.
Each U.S. Holder should consult its own tax adviser with respect to the applicability of the “net investment income tax” (discussed below) where a mark-to-market election is in effect.
Default PFIC Rules. A U.S. Holder who does not make a timely QEF election, or a Non-Electing U.S. Holder, (we do not currently intend to prepare or provide the information that would enable a U.S. Holder to make a QEF election) or a mark-to-market election, will be subject to special rules with respect to (i) any “excess distribution” (generally, the portion of any distributions received by the Non-Electing U.S. Holder on the Ordinary Shares in a taxable year in excess of 125% of the average annual distributions received by the Non-Electing U.S. Holder in the three preceding taxable years, or, if shorter, the Non-Electing U.S. Holder’s holding period for the Ordinary Shares), and (ii) any gain realized on the sale or other disposition of such Ordinary Shares. Under these rules:
|●||the excess distribution or gain would be allocated ratably over the Non-Electing U.S. Holder’s holding period for such Ordinary Shares;|
|●||the amount allocated to the current taxable year and any year prior to us becoming a PFIC would be taxed as ordinary income; and|
|●||the amount allocated to each of the other taxable years would be subject to tax at the highest rate of tax in effect for the applicable class of taxpayer for that year, and an interest charge for the deemed deferral benefit would be imposed with respect to the resulting tax attributable to each such other taxable year.|
If a Non-Electing U.S. Holder who is an individual dies while owning our Ordinary Shares, the Non-Electing U.S. Holder’s successor would be ineligible to receive a step-up in tax basis of such Ordinary Shares. Non-Electing U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of the “net investment income tax” (described below) to their specific situation.
To the extent a distribution on our Ordinary Shares does not constitute an excess distribution to a Non-Electing U.S. Holder, such Non-Electing U.S. Holder generally will be required to include the amount of such distribution in gross income as a dividend to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits (as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) that are not allocated to excess distributions. The tax consequences of such distributions are discussed above under “Taxation of U.S. Holders-Distributions.” Each U.S. Holder is encouraged to consult its own tax advisor with respect to the appropriate U.S. federal income tax treatment of any distribution on our Ordinary Shares.
If we are treated as a PFIC for any taxable year during the holding period of a Non-Electing U.S. Holder, we will continue to be treated as a PFIC for all succeeding years during which the Non-Electing U.S. Holder is treated as a direct or indirect Non-Electing U.S. Holder even if we are not a PFIC for such years. A U.S. Holder is encouraged to consult its tax advisor with respect to any available elections that may be applicable in such a situation, including the “deemed sale” election of Code Section 1298(b)(1) (which will be taxed under the adverse tax rules described above).
We may invest in the equity of foreign corporations that are PFICs or may own subsidiaries that own PFICs. If we are classified as a PFIC, under attribution rules, U.S. Holders will be subject to the PFIC rules with respect to their indirect ownership interests in such PFICs, such that a disposition of the Ordinary Shares of the PFIC or receipt by us of a distribution from the PFIC generally will be treated as a deemed disposition of such Ordinary Shares or the deemed receipt of such distribution by the U.S. Holder, subject to taxation under the PFIC rules. There can be no assurance that a U.S. Holder will be able to make a QEF election or a mark-to-market election with respect to PFICs in which we invest. Each U.S. Holder is encouraged to consult its own tax advisor with respect to tax consequences of an investment by us in a corporation that is a PFIC.
In addition, U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the IRS information reporting and filing obligations that may arise as a result of the ownership of Ordinary Shares in a PFIC, including IRS Form 8621, Information Return by a Shareholder of a Passive Foreign Investment Company or Qualified Electing Fund.
The U.S. federal income tax rules relating to PFICs, QEF elections, and mark-to market elections are complex. U.S. Holders are urged to consult their own tax advisors with respect to the purchase, ownership and disposition of our Ordinary Shares, any elections available with respect to such Ordinary Shares and the IRS information reporting obligations with respect to the purchase, ownership and disposition of our Ordinary Shares.
Certain Reporting Requirements
Certain U.S. Holders must report information on IRS Form 8938, Statement of Specified Foreign Financial Assets, with respect to their investments in certain “foreign financial assets,” which would include an investment in our Ordinary Shares, if the aggregate value of all of those assets exceeds certain thresholds. This reporting requirement applies to individuals and certain U.S. entities.
U.S. Holders who fail to report required information could become subject to substantial penalties. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the possible implications of these reporting requirements arising from their investment in our Ordinary Shares.
Backup Withholding Tax and Information Reporting Requirements
Payments in respect of Ordinary Shares may be subject to information reporting to the IRS and to U.S. backup withholding tax at the rate (currently) of 28%. Backup withholding will not apply, however, if you (i) are a corporation or fall within certain exempt categories, and demonstrate the fact when so required, or (ii) furnish a correct taxpayer identification number and make any other required certification.
Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be credited against a U.S. Holder’s U.S. tax liability. A U.S. Holder may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules by filing the appropriate claim for refund with the IRS.
Medicare Tax on Investment Income
Certain U.S. persons, including individuals, estates and trusts, will be subject to an additional 3.8% Medicare tax, or “net investment income tax,” on unearned income. For individuals, the additional net investment income tax applies to the lesser of (i) “net investment income” or (ii) the excess of “modified adjusted gross income” over $200,000 ($250,000 if married and filing jointly or $125,000 if married and filing separately). “Net investment income” generally equals the taxpayer’s gross investment income reduced by the deductions that are allocable to such income. Investment income generally includes, among other things, passive income such as interest, dividends, annuities, royalties, rents, and capital gains. U.S. Holders are urged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the implications of the additional net investment income tax resulting from their ownership and disposition of our Ordinary Shares.
THE DISCUSSION ABOVE IS A GENERAL SUMMARY. IT DOES NOT COVER ALL TAX MATTERS THAT MAY BE OF IMPORTANCE TO A PROSPECTIVE INVESTOR. EACH PROSPECTIVE INVESTOR IS URGED TO CONSULT ITS OWN TAX ADVISOR ABOUT THE TAX CONSEQUENCES RELATING TO THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR ORDINARY SHARES IN LIGHT OF THE INVESTOR’S OWN CIRCUMSTANCES, INCLUDING THE CONSEQUENCES OF ANY PROPOSED CHANGE IN APPLICABLE LAWS.
F. Dividends and Paying Agents
G. Statement by Experts
H. Documents on Display
We are subject to certain information reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, applicable to foreign private issuers and under those requirements will file reports with the SEC. You may read and copy the annual report on Form 20-F, including the related exhibits and schedules, and any document we file with the SEC without charge at the SEC’s public reference room at 100 F Street, N.E., Room 1580, Washington, DC 20549. You may also obtain copies of the documents at prescribed rates by writing to the Public Reference Section of the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Room 1580, Washington, DC 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the public reference room. The SEC also maintains an Internet website that contains reports and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. Our filings with the SEC will also available to the public through the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from the rules under the Exchange Act related to the furnishing and content of proxy statements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders will be exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we are not required under the Exchange Act to file annual, quarterly and current reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. domestic companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act. However, we will file with the SEC, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, or such applicable time as required by the SEC, an annual report on Form 20-F containing financial statements audited by an independent registered public accounting firm.
We maintain a corporate website http://www.todosmedical.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website and the other websites referenced above do not constitute a part of this annual report on Form 20-F. We have included these website addresses in this annual report on Form 20-F solely as inactive textual references.
I. Subsidiary Information.
In the ordinary course of our operations, we are exposed to certain market risks, primarily changes in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk
We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact our financial position due to adverse changes in financial market prices and rates. Our current investment policy is to invest available cash in bank deposits with banks that have a credit rating of at least A-minus. Accordingly, a substantial majority of our cash and cash equivalents is held in deposits that bear interest.
Given the current low rates of interest we receive, we will not be adversely affected if such rates are reduced. Our market risk exposure is primarily a result of NIS/U.S. dollar exchange rates, which is discussed in detail in the following paragraph.
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
Our results of operations and cash flow are subject to fluctuations due to changes in NIS/U.S. dollar currency exchange rates. The vast majority of our liquid assets is held in U.S. dollars, and a certain portion of our expenses is denominated in NIS. Changes of 5% and 10% in the U.S. Dollar/NIS exchange rate would increase/decrease our loss for 2016 by 1.4% and 2.8%, respectively. However, these historical figures may not be indicative of future exposure, as we expect that the percentage of our NIS denominated expenses will materially decrease in the near future, therefore reducing our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. We do not hedge our foreign currency exchange risk. In the future, we may enter into formal currency hedging transactions to decrease the risk of financial exposure from fluctuations in the exchange rates of our principal operating currencies. These measures, however, may not adequately protect us from the material adverse effects of such fluctuations.
A. Debt Securities.
B. Warrants and rights.
C. Other Securities.
D. American Depositary Shares
In March 2017, our shareholders approved our Amended Articles, pursuant to which all shareholders have equal rights. As a result, our preferred shares were converted into Ordinary Shares. In addition, DPH’s rights to appoint two directors to our Board of Directors expired and any additional veto rights in respect of other decisions also expired.
|(a)||Disclosure Controls and Procedures|
Our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act) as of December 31, 2017, or the Evaluation Date. Based on such evaluation, those officers have concluded that, as of the Evaluation Date, our disclosure controls and procedures are effective in recording, processing, summarizing and reporting, on a timely basis, information required to be included in periodic filings under the Exchange Act and that such information is accumulated and communicated to management, including our principal executive and financial officers, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
|(b)||Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting|
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act. Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, we conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based principally on the framework and criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based on that evaluation, we have identified a material weakness related to our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017. As defined in Regulation 12b-2 under the Securities Exchange Act, a “material weakness” is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented, or detected on a timely basis. Specifically, we determined that that in 2017 we didn’t have sufficient segregation of duties in the procurement process, and ineffective control environment.
We continue to evaluate the impact of internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. As of December 31, 2017, the ineffectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting was due to the following material weaknesses: lack of segregation of duties in the procurement process, and ineffective control environment.
We have taken action toward remediating this material weakness by segregate duties in the procurement process and by strengthen our control environment. However, the implementation of these initiatives may not fully address any material weakness or other deficiencies that we may have in our internal control over financial reporting.
|(c)||Attestation Report of the Registered Public Accounting Firm|
This annual report on form 20-F does not include an attestation report of our independent registered public accounting firm regarding internal control over financial reporting due to an exemption for emerging growth companies provided in the JOBS Act.
|(d)||Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting|
During the year ended December 31, 2017, there were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Our Board of Directors determined that Mrs. Ronit Even-Zahav shall serve as our audit committee financial expert following the establishment of our audit committee by our Board of Directors.
We have adopted a written code of ethics that applies to our officers and employees, including our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal controller and persons performing similar functions as well as our directors. Our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics is posted on our website at www.todosmedical.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website does not constitute a part of this annual report on form 20-F and is not incorporated by reference herein. If we make any amendment to the Code of Business Conduct and Ethics or grant any waivers, including any implicit waiver, from a provision of the code, we will disclose the nature of such amendment or waiver on our website to the extent required by the rules and regulations of the SEC including the instructions to Item 16B of Form 20-F. We have not granted any waivers under our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics.
Fahn Kanne & Co. Grant Thornton Israel has served as our principal independent registered public accounting firm for each of the two years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017. The following table provides information regarding fees paid by us to Fahn Kanne & Co. Grant Thornton Israel for all services, including audit services, for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017:
|Audit Fees (1)||$||42,000||$||42,000|
|Audit Related Fees||0||0|
|Tax Fees (2)||0||0|
|All other Fees||0||0|
(1) “Audit fees” are aggregate fees for audit services, including fees associated with the annual audit, reviews of our quarterly financial results submitted in Reports of Foreign Private Issuer on Form 6-K, consultation on various accounting issues and audit services provided in connection with other statuary or regulatory filings.
(2) “Tax fees” are fees for tax services rendered by our auditors for tax compliance and for general tax consulting.
Pre-Approval of Auditors’ Compensation
Our Board of Directors pre-approves the engagement of our independent registered public accounting firm to perform certain audit and non-audit services.
We have elected to provide financial statements and related information pursuant to Item 18.
The consolidated financial statements and the related notes required by this Item are included in this annual report on Form 20-F beginning on page F-1.
|1.1||Amended and Restated Articles of Association of Todos Medical Ltd. (filed as Exhibit 99.1 to the Company’s current report on Form 6-K (File No. 333-209744) filed on March 30, 2017, and incorporated herein by reference).|
|2.1||Form of Warrant (filed as Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s registration statement on Form F-1 (File No. 333-209744) filed on February 26, 2016, and incorporated herein by reference).|
|4.1||Research and License Agreement with B.G. Negev Technologies and Applications Ltd. and Mor Research Applications Ltd., dated April 26, 2010, as amended June 25, 2012 (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s registration statement on Form F-1 (File No. 333-209744) filed on February 26, 2016, and incorporated herein by reference).|
|4.2||Addendum No. 2 to Research and License Agreement Dated March 19, 2017, as amended on June 25, 2012 with B.G. Negev Technologies and Applications Ltd. and Mor Research Applications Ltd. (filed as Exhibit 4.2 to Form 20-F (File No. 333-209744) filed on May 1, 2017, and incorporated herein by reference).|
|4.3||Summary English Translation of Lease Agreement for Corporate Offices in Rehovot, Israel (filed as Exhibit 10.4 to the Company’s registration statement on Form F-1 (File No. 333-209744) filed on February 26, 2016, and incorporated herein by reference).|
|4.4||Share Purchase Agreement with D.P.H. Investments Ltd. and Group of Investors, dated October 7, 2014, as amended August 2015 (filed as Exhibit 10.5 to the Company’s registration statement on Form F-1 (File No. 333-209744) filed on February 26, 2016, and incorporated herein by reference).|
|4.5||Loan Agreement with Yitzhak Ostrovitzky, dated September 29, 2015, as amended November 12, 2015 (filed as Exhibit 10.6 to the Company’s registration statement on Form F-1 (File No. 333-209744) filed on February 26, 2016, and incorporated herein by reference).|
|4.6||Todos Medical Ltd. 2015 Israeli Share Option Plan (filed as Exhibit 10.7 to the Company’s registration statement on Form F-1 (File No. 333-209744) filed on February 26, 2016, and incorporated herein by reference).|
|4.7||Consulting Agreement with Iberica Investments LLC (filed as Exhibit 10.8 to the Company’s registration statement on Form F-1 (File No. 333-209744) filed on February 26, 2016, and incorporated herein by reference).|
|4.8||Assignment of Consulting Agreement to A.S. Iber Israel Ltd. by Iberica Investments LLC. filed as Exhibit 4.10 to Form 20-F (File No. 333-209744) filed on May 1, 2017, and incorporated herein by reference).|
|4.9||Employment Agreement, dated March 16, 2017, between Todos Medical Singapore Pte Ltd. and Dr. Wee Yue Chew and warrant agreement, dated March 16, 2017, between Todos Medical Ltd. and Dr. Wee Yue Chew (filed as Exhibit 4.12 to Form 20-F (File No. 333-209744) filed on May 1, 2017, and incorporated herein by reference).|
|8.1||List of Subsidiaries, filed as Exhibit 21.1 to Company’s amended registration statement on Form F-1/A (File No. 333-209744) filed on July 27, 2016, and incorporated herein by reference.|
|12.1||Certification of the Chief Executive Officer pursuant to rule 13a-14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.|
|12.2||Certification of the Principal Financial and Accounting Officer pursuant to rule 13a-14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.|
|13.1||Certification of the Chief Executive Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 1350, furnished herewith.|
|13.2||Certification of the Principal Financial and Accounting Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 1350, furnished herewith.|
|101.SCH||XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document|
|101.CAL||XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document|
|101.DEF||XBRL Taxonomy Definition Linkbase Document|
|101.LAB||XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document|
|101.PRE||XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document|
The registrant hereby certifies that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form 20-F and that it has duly caused and authorized the undersigned to sign this annual report on Form 20-F filed on its behalf.
|TODOS MEDICAL LTD.|
|Date: May 15, 2018||By:|
|Chief Executive Officer|
AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2017
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
|Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm||F-2|
|Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2017, and 2016||F-3|
|Statements of Loss for the three years ended December 31, 2017||F-4|
|Statements of changes in Shareholders’ Deficit for the three years ended December 31, 2017||F-5|
|Statements of Cash Flows for the three years ended December 31, 2017||F-6|
|Notes to Financial Statements||F-7 – F-24|
|REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM|
Fahn Kanne & Co.
32 Hamasger Street
Tel-Aviv 6721118, ISRAEL
PO Box 36172, 6136101
T +972 3 7106666
F +972 3 7106660
of Directors and Shareholders|
Todos Medical Ltd.
Opinion on the financial statements
We have audited the accompanying balance sheets of Todos Medical Ltd. (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the related statements of loss, changes in shareholders’ deficit, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
The accompanying financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 1C to the financial statements, the Company has incurred net losses since its inception, and has not yet generated any revenues. As of December 31, 2017, there is an accumulated deficit of $5,235,812 and shareholders deficit of $1,339,633. These conditions, along with other matters as set forth in Note 1C, raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. Management’s plans in regards to these matters are also described in Note 1C. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
Basis for opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
/s/ FAHN KANNE & CO. GRANT THORNTON ISRAEL
FAHN KANNE & CO. GRANT THORNTON ISRAEL
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2015.
Tel Aviv, Israel
May 15, 2018
Certified Public Accountants
Fahn Kanne & Co. is the Israeli member firm of Grant Thornton International Ltd
(U.S. dollars except share and per share amounts)
|As of December 31,|
|Note||2 0 1 7||2 0 1 6|
|Cash and cash equivalents||$||683,202||$||439,077|
|Other current assets||3||19,754||20,874|
|Total current assets||713,055||459,951|
|Property and equipment, net||4||103,374||123,861|
|LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ DEFICIT|
|Liability for minimum royalties||5, 9B||$||135,000||$||85,000|
|Other current liabilities||6||109,791||28,303|
|Total current liabilities||244,791||135,177|
|Long-term loans from shareholders||7||659,526||592,868|
|Liability for minimum royalties – long-term||5, 9B||188,000||-|
|Derivative warrant liability||8||1,063,745||259,716|
|Total non-current liabilities||1,911,271||852,584|
|Commitments and contingent liabilities||9|
|Preferred Shares of NIS 0.01 par value each: Authorized: 10,000,000 shares at December 31, 2017 and 2016. Issued and outstanding: 0 shares and 3,333,471 shares at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively||10||-||9,424|
|Ordinary Shares of NIS 0.01 par value each: Authorized: 990,000,000 shares at December 31, 2017 and 2016. Issued and outstanding: 70,087,141 shares and 63,577,734 shares at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively||184,961||166,723|
|Additional paid-in capital||3,711,218||1,980,344|
|Total shareholders’ deficit||(1,339,633||)||(403,949||)|
|Total liabilities and shareholders’ deficit||$||816,429||$||583,812|
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.
STATEMENTS OF LOSS
(U.S. dollars except share and per share amounts)
|Note||2 0 1 7||2 0 1 6||2 0 1 5|
|Research and development expenses, net||12||$||720,527||$||317,907||$||374,023|
|General and administrative expenses||13||617,087||410,982||456,957|
|Financing income (expenses), net||14||(1,337,758||)||75,428||12,439|
|Basic and diluted net loss per share||16||$||(0.04||)||$||(0.01||)||$||(0.02||)|
|Basic and diluted weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding|