Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
NOTE 2 - SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (US GAAP).
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the dates of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates. As applicable to these financial statements, the most significant estimates and assumptions include (i) identification of and measurement of financial instruments in funding transactions; (ii) initial measurement of investment in affiliated companies and subsequent equity method implications; (iii) determination whether an acquired company or formed entities represents a ‘business’; (iv) determination whether acquired or formed entities are considered Variable Interest Entities (VIE) and if so, whether the Group is its Primary Beneficiary (PB) and (v) measurement of the fair value of equity awards.
The functional currency of the Company and all of its subsidiaries is the US dollar (“$” or “dollar”), as the dollar is the primary currency of the economic environment in which the Company and its subsidiaries have operated and expects to continue to operate in the foreseeable future. The Company’s operations are currently conducted in Israel and most of the Israeli expenses are currently paid in new Israeli shekels (“NIS”); however, most of the expenses are denominated and determined in the dollar. Financing and investing activities including loans, equity transactions and cash investments, are made in the dollar.
In accordance with ASC 830, “Foreign Currency Matters”, balances denominated in or linked to foreign currency are stated on the basis of the exchange rates prevailing at the applicable balance sheet date. For foreign currency transactions included in the statement of operations, the exchange rates applicable on the relevant transaction dates are used. Gains or losses arising from changes in the exchange rates used in the translation of such transactions are presented within financing income or expenses.
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries and when applicable its majority owned entities that were determined to be VIE and that the Group was determined as their Primary Beneficiary (PB). Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated upon consolidation.
ASC 810-10, “Consolidation”, provides a framework for identifying variable interest entities (“VIEs”) and determining when a company should include the assets, liabilities, non-controlling interests and results of activities of a VIE in its consolidated financial statements. According to ASC 810-10, the Company consolidates a VIE when it has both (i) the power to direct the economically significant activities of the entity and (ii) the obligation to absorb losses of, or the right to receive benefits from, the entity that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
The Company’s assessment of whether an entity is a VIE and the determination of the primary beneficiary is judgmental in nature and involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions. The determination of whether the Company should consolidate a VIE is evaluated continuously as existing relationships change or future transactions occur.
The significant factors and judgments that the Company considers in making the determination as to whether an entity is a VIE include, among others: the design of the entity, including the nature of its risks and the purpose for which the entity was created; the nature of the Company’s involvement with the entity; whether there is sufficient equity investment at risk to finance its current activities, until it reaches profitability, without additional subordinated financial support; whether parties other than the equity holders have the obligation to absorb expected losses or the right to receive residual returns.
Unconsolidated Variable Interest Entity
The Company has determined that it is not the primary beneficiary of CATK due to the Company’s inability to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of CATK. However, the Company determined that it has the ability to exercise significant influence over CATK operations through its obligation to supply the investee financial support and accordingly, the investment is accounted for under the equity method.
The Company has determined that it is not the primary beneficiary of Bio Imagery due to the Company’s inability to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of Bio Imagery. However, the Company determined that it has the ability to exercise significant influence over Bio Imagery operations through board representation and voting power and accordingly, the investment is accounted for under the equity method.
As of December 31, 2020, there were no consolidated variable interest entities.
Cash equivalents are short-term highly liquid investments which include short term bank deposits (up to three months from date of deposit), that are not restricted as to withdrawals or use that are readily convertible to cash with maturities of three months or less as of the date acquired.
The allowance for doubtful accounts is determined with respect to amounts the Group has determined to be doubtful of collection. In determining the allowance for doubtful accounts, the Company considers, among other things, its past experience with customers, the length of time that the balance is past due, the customer’s current ability to pay and available information about the credit risk on such customers. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company has not recorded allowance in respect of accounts receivable.
Inventories consist of related equipment, reagents and testing supplies purchased from third party vendors that are held for sale to customers. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost of finished products is mainly determined on the basis of first-in, first-out (FIFO). Other method which is utilized for determining the value of inventories is the moving average. The Group regularly reviews its inventories for obsolescence and other impairment risks and reserves are established when necessary.
Property and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. When an asset is retired or otherwise disposed of, the related cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the respective accounts and the net difference less any amount realized from disposition is reflected in the statements of operations.
The Company’s long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment in accordance with ASC 360, “Property, Plant and Equipment”, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to the future undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair value. To date the Company has not incurred any impairment losses.
Equity investments without readily determinable fair values are measured at cost, less impairment, and plus or minus subsequent adjustments for observable price changes. Periodic changes in the basis of these equity investments are reported in current earnings. In addition, at each reporting period a qualitative assessment is performed to identify impairment. When a qualitative assessment indicates an impairment exists, the Company estimates the fair value of the investment and recognizes in current earnings an impairment loss equal to the difference between the fair value and the carrying amount of the equity investment.
Affiliated company is a company held to the extent of 20% or more (which are not subsidiary), or company less than 20% held, which the Company can exercise significant influence over operating and financial policy of the affiliate.
The investment in affiliated company is accounted for by the equity method under ASC Subtopic 323-30, “Investments - Equity Method and Joint Ventures: Partnerships, Joint Ventures, and Limited Liability Entities”. Upon initial recognition, the cost of investment is based on the direct costs of acquiring the investment including amounts incurred on behalf of the investee. When the affiliated company is not considered a business as no substantive process is identified, amounts allocated to any In-Process Research and Development (IPR&D) to be used in research and development projects which have been determined not to have an alternative future use are charged to expenses of the acquisition date.
Following the acquisition, the Company recognizes its proportionate share of the affiliated company’s net income or loss after the date of investment. When previous losses have reduced the common stock investment account to zero, the Company continues to report its share of equity method losses in its statement of operations to the extent of and as an adjustment to other investments in the investee such as debt securities, long term loans or advances, if any. Such additional equity method losses are applied to the other investments based on the seniority of the other investments (priority in liquidation) and the percentage ownership interest in each type of other investment the Company holds (the ‘relative holdings approach’).
When the Company achieves control on an affiliated company, the Previously Held Equity Interests (PHEI) in the affiliated company is remeasured to its fair value immediately prior to the asset acquisition.
The Company’s consolidated financial statements include the operations of acquired businesses from the date of the acquisition’s consummation. Acquired businesses are accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting, which requires, among other things, that most assets acquired and liabilities assumed be recognized at their estimated fair values as of the acquisition date and that the fair value of acquired in process research and development be recorded on the balance sheet. Transaction costs are expensed as incurred. Any excess of the consideration transferred over the assigned values of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill.
When the Company acquires net assets that do not constitute a business, as defined under ASU 2017-01 Business Combinations (Topic 805) Clarifying the Definition of a Business (such when there is no substantive process in the acquired entity), no goodwill is recognized and acquired In-Process Research and Development intangible asset (“IPR&D”) to be used in research and development projects which have been determined not to have alternative future use, is expensed immediately. Accordingly, when the purchase price (i.e. cash consideration, fair value of PHEI and the fair value of the equity interests issued) is fully attributed to such acquired IPR&D to be used in a research and development project which were determined not to have an alternative future use, the entire purchase price allocated to the acquired IPR&D is charged to expense at the acquisition date as part of “Research and Development expenses” line in operations in the accompanying consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 (see also Note 4A3).
The Company accounted for the right to obtain control over affiliated company and the right to acquire shares of other companies, as a non-current financial derivative asset according to the provisions of ASC 815-10, “Derivatives and Hedging - Overall” (“ASC 815-10”). Upon initial recognition and in subsequent periods such asset is measured at fair value by using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model, which requires inputs such as the underlying share asset value and share price volatility. These assumptions are reviewed on a regular basis and changes in the estimated fair value of the outstanding right to obtain control over affiliated company and the right to acquire shares of other companies were recognized each reporting period as part of in the “Share in Losses of Affiliated Company” line or “Finance Expenses” line, as applicable in operations in the accompanying consolidated statement of operations, until such rights are exercised or expired (see also Note 4A).
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC Topic 740, “Income Taxes”. Accordingly, deferred income taxes are determined utilizing the asset and liability method based on the estimated future tax effects of differences between the financial accounting and the tax bases of assets and liabilities under the applicable tax law. Deferred tax balances are computed using the enacted tax rates expected to be in effect when these differences reverse. Valuation allowance in respect of deferred tax assets are provided for, if necessary, to reduce deferred tax assets is amounts more likely than not to be realized.
The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions in accordance with ASC Topic 740-10, which prescribes detailed guidance for the financial statement recognition, measurement and disclosure of uncertain tax positions recognized in an enterprise’s financial statements. According to ASC Topic 740-10, tax positions must meet a more-likely-than-not recognition threshold. The Company’s accounting policy is to classify interest and penalties relating to uncertain tax positions under income taxes, however the Company did not recognize such items in its fiscal 2020 and 2019 financial statements and did not recognize any liability with respect to an unrecognized tax position in its balance sheets.
The Company’s liability for severance
pay to its Israeli employees is pursuant to Section 14 of the Israeli Severance Compensation Act, 1963 (“Section 14”), pursuant
to which all the Company’s employees are included under Section 14, and are entitled only to monthly deposits, at a rate of 8.33%
of their monthly salary, made in the employee’s name with insurance companies. Under Israeli employment law, payments in accordance
with Section 14 release the Company from any future severance payments in respect of those employees. The fund is made available to the
employee at the time the employer-employee relationship is terminated, regardless of cause of termination. The severance pay liabilities
and deposits under Section 14 are not reflected in the balance sheets as the severance pay risks have been irrevocably transferred to
the severance funds. All deposits required through December 31, 2020 have been made.
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and trade receivables as well as certain other current assets that do not amount to a significant amount. Cash and cash equivalents, which are primarily held in Dollars and New Israeli Shekels, are deposited with major banks in Israel. Management believes that such financial institutions are financially sound and, accordingly, minimal credit risk exists with respect to these financial instruments. The Company does not have any significant off-balance-sheet concentration of credit risk, such as foreign exchange contracts, option contracts or other foreign hedging arrangements. Most of the Group’s sales are made in United States to a small number of customers. Management periodically evaluates the collectability of the trade receivables to determine the amounts that are doubtful of collection and determine a proper allowance for doubtful accounts. Accordingly, management believes that the Group’s trade receivables do not represent a substantial concentration of credit risk.
The Company and its subsidiaries are involved in certain legal proceedings and certain business relationships that arise from time to time in the ordinary course of their business and in connection with certain agreements with third parties (such as with respect to certain royalty agreements). Except for income tax contingencies, the Company applies the provisions of ASC Topic 450, Contingencies. Thus, the Company records accruals for contingencies to the extent that the management concludes that the occurrence is probable and that the related liabilities are estimable. Legal expenses associated with contingencies are expensed as incurred.
The Company measures and discloses fair value in accordance with the ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures which defines fair value, establishes a framework and gives guidance regarding the methods used for measuring fair value, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. Fair value is an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. As a basis for considering such assumptions there exists a three-tier fair-value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:
Level 1 - unadjusted quoted prices are available in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access as of the measurement date.
Level 2 - pricing inputs are other than quoted prices in active markets that are directly observable for the asset or liability or indirectly observable through corroboration with observable market data.
Level 3 - pricing inputs are unobservable for the non-financial asset or liability and only used when there is little, if any, market activity for the non-financial asset or liability at the measurement date. The inputs into the determination of fair value require significant management judgment or estimation. Level 3 inputs are considered as the lowest priority within the fair value hierarchy. The valuation of the right to obtain control over affiliated company, right to acquire shares of other companies, contingent consideration to be paid upon achieving of performance milestone, certain convertible bridge loans (following the maturity date and thereafter) and certain freestanding stock warrants and bifurcated convertible feature of convertible bridge loans issued to the units’ owners, fall under this category.
This hierarchy requires the Company to use observable market data, when available, and to minimize the use of unobservable inputs when determining fair value.
The fair value of cash and cash equivalents
is based on its demand value, which is equal to its carrying value. Additionally, the carrying value of all other short-term monetary
assets and liabilities are estimated to be equal to their fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.
Research and development expenses are charged to operations as incurred.
Royalty-bearing grants from the Israeli Innovation Authority of the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor (the “IIA”) for funding approved research and development projects are recognized at the time the Company is entitled to such grants (i.e. at the time that there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attached to the grant and that there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received), on the basis of the costs incurred and reduce research and development costs (see also Note 14C1). The cumulative research and development grants received by the Company from inception through December 2020 amounted to $272.
As of December 31, 2020, and 2019, the Company did not accrue for or pay any royalties to the IIA as no revenue related to the funded projects has yet been generated.
The Company computes net loss per share in accordance with ASC 260, “Earning per Share”, which requires presentation of both basic and diluted loss per share on the face of the statement of operations.
Basic net loss per ordinary share is computed by dividing the net loss for the period applicable to ordinary shareholders, by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period. Diluted loss per share gives effect to all potentially dilutive common shares outstanding during the year using the treasury stock method with respect to stock options and certain stock warrants and using the if-converted method with respect to convertible bridge loans and certain stock warrants. In computing diluted loss per share, the average stock price for the period is used in determining the number of shares assumed to be purchased from the exercise of stock options or warrants. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 the total weighted average number of potentially dilutive ordinary shares related to outstanding stock options, stock warrants and convertible bridge loans excluded from the calculation of the diluted loss per share was 112,866,881 and 23,069,233, respectively.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”) which supersedes the existing revenue recognition accounting rules. Under the new guidance the Company determines revenue recognition through the following five steps:
For each type of contract at inception, the Company assesses the goods or service promised in a contract with a customer and identifies the performance obligations.
When a contract for the sale of goods or service includes an option that provides the customer with free or discounted goods or services to be provided by the Company in the future, the Company assesses whether such right represents a material right. When it is determined that such right is considered to be material the Company accounts for such a promise as a separate performance obligation.
With respect to contracts that are determined to have multiple performance obligations (such as goods and a material right to free or discounted goods to be provided in the future), the Company allocates the contract’s transaction price to each performance obligation using its best estimate of the relative standalone selling price of each distinct good or service in the contract. In assessing whether to allocate variable consideration to a specific part of the contract, the Company considers the nature of variable payment (if any) and whether it relates specifically to its efforts to satisfy a specific part of the contract.
Revenues are recognized when, or as, control of services or products is transferred to the customers at a point in time or over time, as applicable to each performance obligation.
Revenues are recorded in the amount of consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for performance obligations upon transfer of control to the customer, excluding amounts collected on behalf of other third parties and sales taxes.
The Company does not adjust the amount of consideration for the effects of a significant financing component since the Company expects, at contract inception, that the period between the time of transfer of the promised goods or services to the customer and the time the customer pays for these goods or services to be generally one year or less, based on the practical expedient. The Company’s credit terms to customers are, on average, between thirty and ninety days.
When another party is involved in providing goods or services to the customer, the Company examines whether the nature of its promise is a performance obligation to provide the defined goods or services itself, which means the Company is a principal and therefore recognizes revenue in the gross amount of the consideration, or to arrange that another party provide the goods or services which means the Company is an agent and therefore recognizes revenue in the amount of the net commission.
Such determination is performed separately for each specified good or service promised to a customer.
In making that evaluation, the Company considers whether it controls the promised good or service before transferring that good or service to the customer. The Company considers indicators such as whether the Company is the primary obligor for fulfilling the promises in the contract and assumes risks and rewards as a principal or an agent, including the credit risks; the Company has inventory risk before the goods or services are transferred to the customer; and the Company has discretion in setting prices of the goods or services and selecting its suppliers.
Generally, in cases in which the Company is primarily obligated in a transaction, is subject to risk, involved in the determination of the product (or the service) specifications, separately negotiates each revenue service agreement and has inventory risk, revenues and cost of revenues are recorded on a gross basis.
Commencing 2020, the Company generated revenues from commercial sale of COVID-19 related equipment, reagents and testing supplies through sub-distribution agreements with unrelated distribution companies with clients who are seeking comprehensive testing solutions for return-to-work programs.
Deferred revenues are contract liabilities and include unearned amounts received and amounts received from customers (mostly advances from customers for COVID-19 related products) but not yet recognized as revenues as the performance obligation has not been fulfilled by the Company.
Upon initial recognition of Convertible loans, Convertible Notes and similar instruments, the Company considers the provisions of ASC 815-40, “Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity” (“ASC 815-40”) in order to determine whether the conversion features embedded within the convertible instrument should be separated from the host instrument.
Host contract is not convertible upon issuance
When it is determined that the embedded conversion feature should not be bifurcated from the host instrument, as at the initial investment date the loan was considered as straight loan with maturity term which is under the control of the Company, the bridge loan was recognized based on the amount allocated as described in Note 2X less the applicable issuance cost. The difference between the face value of the bridge loan to such allocated process (after allocation of the proceeds received to detachable freestanding financial instrument (i.e. detachable warrants) that were granted to lenders), represents a discount which is amortized as finance expense to profit or loss by using effective interest method over the term of the bridge loan until its stated maturity. Following the maturity date and subject to the Company’s discrete decision not to repay the loan for cash, the bridge loan became subject to the provision of ASC 480 “Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity” as it represents an obligation to issue a variable number of shares (share-settled obligation). Thus, upon the lapse of the Company’s right to repay the bridge loan for cash, the bridge loan is measured at fair value through profit or loss with changes presented within financing income or expense, as applicable.
Host contract is convertible upon issuance
When it is determined that the embedded conversion feature does not qualify for equity classification, the Company recognized the embedded conversion feature as a separate derivative liability upon initial recognition and on subsequent periods at fair value by using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model. The remaining consideration amount received or allocated to the entire convertible instrument is allocated to the host debt instrument. The difference between the face value of the host and such allocated amount represents a discount which is amortized as finance expense to profit or loss by using effective interest method over the term of the loan until its stated maturity.
When it is determined that the embedded conversion feature qualifies for equity classification (such when the embedded conversion option, if it were freestanding, is not qualified as a derivative in accordance with the provisions of ASC 815-10, “Derivatives and Hedging” since its terms did not require or permit net settlement or when the embedded conversion option is indexed to the entity’s own stock), the conversion option is not bifurcated. When bifurcation is not required, the Company applies ASC 470-20, “Debt - Debt with Conversion and Other Options” (“ASC 470-20”) which clarifies the accounting for instruments with Beneficial Conversion Feature (BCF) or contingently adjustable conversion ratios, to determine whether the conversion feature is beneficial to the lender.
BCF was calculated by allocating the proceeds received to the convertible instrument and to any detachable freestanding financial instrument (such as detachable warrants) included in the transaction (or any other embedded feature that required bifurcation from the host) and by measuring the intrinsic value of the conversion option based on the effective conversion price as a result of the allocated proceed. The intrinsic value of the conversion option, if any, is recorded as a discount with respect to the loan, with a corresponding amount credited directly to equity as additional paid-in capital. After the initial recognition, the discount is amortized as interest expense over the contractual term of the Loan (before its modification) by using the effective interest method.
When multiple instruments are issued in a single transaction (package issuance), the total net proceeds from the transaction are allocated among the individual freestanding instruments identified. The allocation occurs after identifying all the freestanding instruments and the subsequent measurement basis for those instruments.
Financial instruments that are required to be subsequently measured at fair value (i.e. derivative warrants liability and derivative liability related to bifurcated embedded conversion feature) are measured at fair value and the remaining consideration is allocated to other financial instruments that are not required to be subsequently measured at fair value (i.e. certain convertible bridge loans, warrants eligible for equity classification) and common stock, based on the relative fair value basis for such instruments.
The allocation of issuance costs to freestanding instruments was based on an approach that is consistent with the allocation of the proceeds, as described above.
Issuance costs allocated to the derivative warrant liability or bifurcated embedded conversion feature were immediately expensed, as discussed above. Issuance costs allocated to warrants stock classified as equity component were recorded as a reduction of additional paid-in capital. Issuance costs allocated to convertible bridge loan (or to the host component of convertible bridge loan if bifurcation was applied) are recorded as a discount of the host component and accreted over the contractual term of loans up to face value of such loans using the effective interest method.
Certain warrants that were granted by the Company for lenders through convertible bridge loans transactions and stock warrants that were granted as a result of modification of terms of certain convertible bridge loans transactions (see also Note 11) are classified as a component of permanent equity since they are freestanding financial instruments that are legally detachable and separately exercisable, do not embody an obligation for the Company to repurchase its own shares, and permit the holders to receive a fixed number of shares of common stock upon exercise for a fixed exercise price and thus, are considered as indexed to the Company’s own stock. In addition, the warrants must require physical settlement and may not provide any guarantee of value or return. Such warrants were initially recognized based on the allocation method described in Note 2X above as an increase to additional paid-in capital. When applicable, direct issuance expenses that were allocated to the above warrants were deducted from additional paid-in capital.
The Company accounts for certain warrants to purchase Ordinary Shares in connection with certain private placement transactions and convertible bridge loans transactions, held by investors and/or lenders, that include a fundamental transaction feature pursuant to which such warrants could be required to be settled in cash upon certain events which some of them are not considered solely within the control of the Company, as a non-current liability according to the provisions of ASC 815-40, “Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity” (“ASC 815-40”). The Company accounted for these warrants as a financial liability measured upon initial recognition and on subsequent periods at fair value by using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model.
Certain warrants that were granted by the Company for lenders through convertible bridge loans transactions (see also Note 11) entitle the lenders to exercise the warrants for a variable number of shares and/or for a variable exercise price and thus the fixed-for-fixed criteria is not met. Accordingly, the warrants were classified as a non-current liability according to the provisions of ASC 815-40, “Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity” (“ASC 815-40”). The Company accounted for these warrants as a financial derivative liability measured upon initial recognition and on subsequent periods at fair value by using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model.
The fair value of the aforesaid warrants derivative liability is estimated using the Black-Scholes Model which requires inputs such as the expected term of the warrants, share price volatility and risk-free interest rate. These assumptions are reviewed on a regular basis and changes in the estimated fair value of the outstanding warrants are recognized each reporting period as part of the “Financing (income) expenses, net” line in operations in the accompanying consolidated statement of net loss, until such warrants are exercised or expired. When applicable, direct issuance expenses that were allocated to the above warrants were expensed as incurred.
The Company measures and recognizes the compensation expense for all equity-based payments to employees based on their estimated fair values in accordance with ASC 718, “Compensation-Stock Compensation”. Share-based payments including grants of share options are recognized in the statement of operations as an operating expense based on the fair value of the award at the grant date. The fair value of share options granted is estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The inputs for the valuation analysis of the share options include several assumptions, of which the most significant are the expected stock price volatility and the expected option term. Expected volatility was calculated based upon historical volatility of peer companies in the same industry on weekly basis since the marketability of the Company is considered low. The expected option term represents the period that the Company’s stock options are expected to be outstanding and is determined based on the simplified method until sufficient historical exercise data will support using expected life assumptions. The risk-free interest rate is based on the yield from U.S. treasury bonds with an equivalent term. The expected dividend yield assumption is based on the Company’s historical experience and expectation of no future dividend payouts. The Company has historically not paid cash dividends and has no foreseeable plans to pay cash dividends in the future. The Company has expensed compensation costs, net of estimated forfeitures, applying the accelerated vesting method, over the requisite service period or over the implicit service period when a performance condition affects the vesting, and it is considered probable that the performance condition will be achieved.
Until December 31, 2018, Share-based payments awarded to consultants (non-employees) were accounted for in accordance with ASC Topic 505-50, “Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees”. Commencing January 1, 2019, following the adoption of ASU 2018-07 which aligns the measurement and classification guidance for share-based payments to nonemployees with the guidance for share-based payments to employees (with certain exceptions), share-based payments to non-employees are accounted in accordance with ASC 718.
A modification to the terms and/or conditions of an award (i.e. a change of award’s fair value, vesting conditions or classification as an equity or a liability instrument) is accounted for as an exchange of the original award for a new award resulting in total compensation cost equal to the grant-date fair value of the original award, plus the incremental value of the modification to the award. The calculation of the incremental value is based on the excess of the fair value of the modified award following the modification over the fair value of the original award measured immediately before its terms were modified.
Modifications to, or exchanges of, financial instruments such as convertible loans, are accounted for as a modification or an extinguishment, following to provisions of ASC 470-50, “Debt- Modification and Extinguishments”, under which modifications or exchanges are generally considered extinguishments with gains or losses recognized in current earnings if the terms of the new debt and original instrument are substantially different. Such an assessment is done by management either quantitatively (i.e. when the present value of the cash flows under the new debt instrument terms is at least 10% different from the present value of the remaining cash flows under the original instrument terms) or qualitatively based on the facts and circumstances of each transaction.
If the terms of a debt instrument are changed or modified and the present value of the cash flows under the terms of the new debt instrument is less than 10%, the debt instruments are not considered to be substantially different, except in the following two circumstances (i) the transaction significantly affects the terms of an embedded conversion option, such that the change in the fair value of the embedded conversion option (calculated as the difference between the fair value of the embedded conversion option immediately before and after the modification or exchange) is at least 10% of the carrying amount of the original debt instrument immediately before the modification or exchange or (ii) the transaction adds a substantive conversion option or eliminates a conversion option that was substantive at the date of the modification or exchange.
If the original and new debt instruments are considered as “substantially different”, the original debt is derecognized and the new debt is initially recorded at fair value, with the difference recognized as an extinguishment gain or loss under financial expense or income as applicable.
The Company is currently assessing the impact the guidance will have on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef